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Plants, compared to animals, exhibit an amazing adaptability and plasticity in their development. This is largely dependent on the ability of plants to form new organs, such as lateral roots, leaves, and flowers during postembryonic development. Organ primordia develop from founder cell populations into organs by coordinated cell division and(More)
Spatial distribution of the plant hormone auxin regulates multiple aspects of plant development. These self-regulating auxin gradients are established by the action of PIN auxin transporters, whose activity is regulated by their constitutive cycling between the plasma membrane and endosomes. Here, we show that auxin signaling by the auxin receptor(More)
Plant development is exceptionally flexible as manifested by its potential for organogenesis and regeneration, which are processes involving rearrangements of tissue polarities. Fundamental questions concern how individual cells can polarize in a coordinated manner to integrate into the multicellular context. In canalization models, the signaling molecule(More)
Cell polarity manifested by the polar cargo delivery to different plasma-membrane domains is a fundamental feature of multicellular organisms. Pathways for polar delivery have been identified in animals; prominent among them is transcytosis, which involves cargo movement between different sides of the cell [1]. PIN transporters are prominent polar cargoes(More)
A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cells transformed with plasmids encoding(More)
BACKGROUND It has become evident that host cells react to recombinant protein production with a variety of metabolic and intrinsic stresses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Additionally, environmental conditions such as growth temperature may have a strong impact on cell physiology and specific productivity. However, there is little(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic pathway manipulation for improving the properties and the productivity of microorganisms is becoming a well established concept. For the production of important metabolites, but also for a better understanding of the fundamentals of cell biology, detailed studies are required. In this work we analysed the lactate production from(More)
Genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. While Aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND The onset of differentiation entails modifying the gene expression state of cells, to allow activation of developmental programs that are maintained repressed in the undifferentiated precursor cells [1, 2]. This requires a mechanism to change gene expression on a genome-scale. Recent evidence suggests that in mammalian stem cells, derepression of(More)
A simple direct-addition microtitre plate enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progesterone in whole milk is described. The assay used antiserum raised against 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 11-hemisuccinate (progesterone 11-hemisuccinate) and a heterologous label prepared by conjugation of 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 11-glucuronide (progesterone 11-glucuronide) with(More)