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Rates of molecular evolution vary widely between lineages, but quantification of how rates change has proven difficult. Recently proposed estimation procedures have mainly adopted highly parametric approaches that model rate evolution explicitly. In this study, a semiparametric smoothing method is developed using penalized likelihood. A saturated model in(More)
SUMMARY Estimating divergence times and rates of substitution from sequence data is plagued by the problem of rate variation between lineages. R8s version 1.5 is a program which uses parametric, nonparametric and semiparametric methods to relax the assumption of constant rates of evolution to obtain better estimates of rates and times. Unlike most programs(More)
A new method for estimating divergence times when evolutionary rates are variable across lineages is proposed. The method, called nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS), relies on minimization of ancestor-descendant local rate changes and is motivated by the likelihood that evolutionary rates are autocorrelated in time. Fossil information pertaining to minimum(More)
The extraordinary contemporary species richness and ecological predominance of flowering plants (angiosperms) are even more remarkable when considering the relatively recent onset of their evolutionary diversification. We examine the evolutionary diversification of angiosperms and the observed differential distribution of species in angiosperm clades by(More)
Comparisons between insular and continental radiations have been hindered by a lack of reliable estimates of absolute diversification rates in island lineages. We took advantage of rate-constant rDNA sequence evolution and an "external" calibration using paleoclimatic and fossil data to determine the maximum age and minimum diversification rate of the(More)
PREMISE OF THE STUDY Recent analyses employing up to five genes have provided numerous insights into angiosperm phylogeny, but many relationships have remained unresolved or poorly supported. In the hope of improving our understanding of angiosperm phylogeny, we expanded sampling of taxa and genes beyond previous analyses. METHODS We conducted two primary(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of 330 plastid matK gene sequences, representing 235 genera from 37 of 39 tribes, and four outgroup taxa from eurosids I supports many well-resolved subclades within the Leguminosae. These results are generally consistent with those derived from other plastid sequence data (rbcL and trnL), but show greater resolution and clade support(More)
In response to mechanical stimulation of a single cell, airway epithelial cells in culture exhibit a wave of increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentration that spreads from cell to cell over a limited distance through the culture. We present a detailed analysis of the intercellular wave in a two-dimensional sheet of cells. The model is based on the(More)
Intercellular Ca2+ signaling in primary cultures of glial cells was investigated with digital fluorescence video imaging. Mechanical stimulation of a single cell induced a wave of increased [Ca2+]i that was communicated to surrounding cells. This was followed by asynchronous Ca2+ oscillations in some cells. Similar communicated Ca2+ responses occurred in(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies inferring species phylogenies use sequences from single copy genes or sets of orthologs culled from gene families. For taxa such as plants, with very high levels of gene duplication in their nuclear genomes, this has limited the exploitation of nuclear sequences for phylogenetic studies, such as those available in large EST(More)