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The serum response element (SRE) is a sequence required for transient transcriptional activation of genes in response to growth factors. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitous nuclear protein that binds to the SRE. The SRF gene is highly conserved through evolution, and in cultured cells its transcription is itself(More)
The catalytic domain of the F-ATPase in mitochondria protrudes into the matrix of the organelle, and is attached to the membrane domain by central and peripheral stalks. Energy for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate is provided by the transmembrane proton-motive-force across the inner membrane, generated by respiration. The proton-motive force is(More)
The mitochondrial F₁-ATPase inhibitor protein, IF₁, inhibits the hydrolytic, but not the synthetic activity of the F-ATP synthase, and requires the hydrolysis of ATP to form the inhibited complex. In this complex, the α-helical inhibitory region of the bound IF₁ occupies a deep cleft in one of the three catalytic interfaces of the enzyme. Its N-terminal(More)
Bovine complex I is an assembly of 46 different proteins. Seven of them are encoded in mitochondrial DNA, and the rest are nuclear gene products that are imported into the organelle. Fourteen of the nuclear encoded subunits have modified N termini. Many of these post-translational modifications have been deduced previously from intact protein masses. These(More)
In the structure of bovine F(1)-ATPase inhibited with residues 1-60 of the bovine inhibitor protein IF(1), the α-helical inhibitor interacts with five of the nine subunits of F(1)-ATPase. In order to understand the contributions of individual amino acid residues to this complex binding mode, N-terminal deletions and point mutations have been introduced, and(More)
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