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Myelin loss and axonal damage are both observed in white matter injuries. Each may have significant impact on the long-term disability of patients. Currently, there does not exist a noninvasive biological marker that enables differentiation between myelin and axonal injury. We describe herein the use of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to(More)
Effects of B cell depletion by rituximab, a monoclonal antibody to CD20, were studied in patients with relapsing MS that had not responded optimally to standard immunomodulatory therapies. Flow cytometry demonstrated reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells and T cells in most patients at 6 months post-treatment. ELISAs demonstrated modest reductions in(More)
The role of B cells and antibody in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains controversial. We previously demonstrated that B cells are required for EAE to be induced by the 120-amino acid extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). In the present study, the role of B cells in MOG-induced EAE was(More)
The role of B cells and antibody in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) appears to differ based on the identity and state (protein vs. encephalitogenic peptide) of the inducing antigen and the strain of mouse utilized. The involvement of B cells in the induction of EAE by peptides of proteolipid protein (PLP) in BALB/c mice was investigated.(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed autoimmune disease directed against central nervous system (CNS) myelin, in which diet and obesity are implicated as risk factors. Immune responses can be influenced by molecules produced by fat cells, called adipokines. Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory effects. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression in the central nervous system correlates with EAE disease activity. Inhibition of NOS2 ameliorates adoptively transferred EAE, yet exacerbates actively induced EAE. Herein, the encephalitogenicity of T cells induced by immunization in the presence or absence of NOS2 was examined. Upon passive transfer, T(More)
It was previously shown that BALB/c mice were susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by immunization with proteolipid protein (PLP). To determine the encephalitogenic epitopes of PLP in BALB/c mice, mice were immunized with successively smaller pools of 20-mer peptides spanning the PLP molecule from amino acid 30 to amino acid 206.(More)
Previous work demonstrated that EAE induced by recombinant human MOG was B cell-dependent. Data presented here reveal a T cell response to MOG61-85 in human rMOG-immunized B cell(-/-) mice not observed in WT mice. Further study revealed this peptide to be a cryptic epitope in WT mice. Co-immunization of B cell(-/-) mice with MOG35-55 and MOG61-85 peptides(More)
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