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Mathematical modelling of the movement of animals, micro-organisms and cells is of great relevance in the fields of biology, ecology and medicine. Movement models can take many different forms, but the most widely used are based on the extensions of simple random walk processes. In this review paper, our aim is twofold: to introduce the mathematics behind(More)
Mast-seeding plants often produce high seed crops the year after a warm spring or summer, but the warm-temperature model has inconsistent predictive ability. Here, we show for 26 long-term data sets from five plant families that the temperature difference between the two previous summers (ΔT) better predicts seed crops. This discovery explains how masting(More)
In order to progress from the relatively harmless avascular state to the potentially lethal vascular state, solid tumours must induce the growth of new blood vessels from existing ones, a process called angiogenesis. The capillary growth centres around endothelial cells: there are several cell-based models of this process in the literature and these have(More)
Angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from existing ones--is a prerequisite for the growth of solid tumours beyond a diameter of approximately 2 mm. In recent years, the angiopoietins have emerged as important regulators of angiogenesis. They mediate a delicate balance between vascular quiescence, regression and new growth, but their mechanism of(More)
This paper investigates the stability of the power-law steady state often observed in marine ecosystems. Three dynamical systems are considered, describing the abundance of organisms as a function of body mass and time: a "jump-growth" equation, a first order approximation which is the widely used McKendrick-von Foerster equation, and a second order(More)
Complex networks of interactions are ubiquitous and are particularly important in ecological communities, in which large numbers of species exhibit negative (for example, competition or predation) and positive (for example, mutualism) interactions with one another. Nestedness in mutualistic ecological networks is the tendency for ecological specialists to(More)
Many different species have been suggested to forage according to a Lévy walk in which the distribution of step lengths is heavy-tailed. Theoretical research has shown that a Lévy exponent of approximately 2 can provide a higher foraging efficiency than other exponents. In this paper, a composite search model is presented for non-destructive foraging(More)
Bartumeus et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097901 (2002)] compared the efficiency of a Lévy random walk predator strategy with a Brownian random walk strategy in a periodic one-dimensional domain with nonrevisitable moving targets. Their findings from numerical simulations conclude that "a Lévy search strategy is the best option in some, but not all, cases for(More)
In aquatic ecosystems, where organisms typically feed and grow by eating smaller individuals, a characteristic size spectrum emerges, such that large organisms are much more rare than small ones. Here, a stochastic individual-based model for the dynamics of size spectra is described, based on birth, growth, and death of individuals, using simple assumptions(More)
The link between atherosclerosis and regions of disturbed flow and low wall shear stress is now firmly established, but the causal mechanisms underlying the link are not yet understood. It is now recognised that the endothelium is not simply a passive barrier between the blood and the vessel wall, but plays an active role in maintaining vascular homeostasis(More)