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OBJECTIVE Slow waves and sleep spindles are the two main oscillations occurring during non-REM sleep. While slow oscillations are primarily generated and modulated by the cortex, sleep spindles are initiated by the thalamic reticular nucleus and regulated by thalamo-reticular and thalamo-cortical circuits. In a recent high-density EEG study, the authors(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with high-density electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to directly examine the properties of thalamocortical circuits in the brain without engaging an individual in cognitive or motor tasks. The authors investigated EEG responses in schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects(More)
Slow waves are the most prominent electroencephalographic feature of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. During NREM sleep, cortical neurons oscillate approximately once every second between a depolarized upstate, when cortical neurons are actively firing, and a hyperpolarized downstate, when cortical neurons are virtually silent (Destexhe et al., 1999;(More)
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Statins reduce cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular events in randomized clinical trials. * Much less is known about their impact in the setting of normal care. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * This is the first study to assess the effectiveness of lipid-lowering treatment in the general population. * We have also(More)
Insulin resistance (IR), an impaired cellular, tissue and whole body response to insulin, is a major pathophysiological defect of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although IR is closely associated with obesity, the identity of the molecular defect(s) underlying obesity-induced IR in skeletal muscle remains controversial; reduced post-receptor signalling of the(More)
In the UK, clinicians usually make treatment decisions based on total cholesterol (TC) at the same time supplemented with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements. We evaluated statin-associated TC concentration change and its impact on cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction in diabetic patients in the setting of usual care. In a(More)
BACKGROUND Student choice plays a prominent role in the undergraduate curriculum in many contemporary medical schools. A key unanswered question relates to its impact on academic performance. METHODS We studied 301 students who were in years 2 and 3 of their medical studies in 2005/06. We investigated the relationship between SSC grade and allocated(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used; however, they are also nephrotoxic with both acute and chronic effects on kidney function. Here we determined NSAID prescribing before and after estimated GFR (eGFR) reporting and evaluate renal function in patients who used NSAIDs but stopped these after their first eGFR report. A(More)
BACKGROUND Total cholesterol (TC) concentration is the most commonly used measure of statin efficacy in the UK. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of statins in lowering TC, cardiovascular events (CV) and mortality five common chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic(More)