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Hydrothermal circulation within the sea floor, through lithosphere older than one million years (Myr), is responsible for 30% of the energy released from plate cooling, and for 70% of the global heat flow anomaly (the difference between observed thermal output and that predicted by conductive cooling models). Hydrothermal fluids remove significant amounts(More)
[1] One hundred seven thermal gradients were measured in shallow surface sediments using the submersible Alvin within a 0.5 km 2 area on and around the 65-m-high, mostly sediment-covered Baby Bare outcrop located on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Heat flow values range from 0.35 W m À2 , which is close to the average value (0.27 W m À2) for(More)
The hydrogen-isotope [deuterium/hydrogen (D/H)] ratio of Earth can be used to constrain the origin of its water. However, the most accessible reservoir, Earth's oceans, may no longer represent the original (primordial) D/H ratio, owing to changes caused by water cycling between the surface and the interior. Thus, a reservoir completely isolated from surface(More)
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