Michael J. MacDonald

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L eucine is the only physiologic amino acid that can stimulate insulin release by itself, and a great deal of evidence suggests that leucine does this by al-losterically activating glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of endog-enous glutamate, which is present at a high concentration in the pancreatic b-cell. Studies that(More)
Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the(More)
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in many biosynthetic pathways in various tissues including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the present study, we identify promoter usage of the human PC gene in pancreatic beta cells. The data show that in the human, two alternative promoters, proximal and distal, are responsible for(More)
Tau aggregation is a common feature of tauopathies such as Alzheimer disease (AD). In AD, tau assembles into fibrillar polymers; it may also be present in other aberrant aggregates, including Hirano bodies. The mechanisms leading to tau polymerization in vivo are not understood. In this study, we found that coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) facilitates tau(More)
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that regulates glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Dysregulation of its expression is associated with type 2 diabetes. Herein we describe the molecular mechanism underlying the glucose-mediated transcriptional regulation of the PC gene. Incubation of the rat insulin cell line INS-1(More)
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer(More)
The performance of X-ray free-electron laser beamlines may be limited by the angular aperture. Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) can be employed to prefocus the X-ray beam, thereby increasing the beamline transmission. A prefocusing CRL was implemented in the X-ray transport of the Matter under Extreme Conditions Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light(More)
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