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Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the(More)
Leucine and monomethyl succinate initiate insulin release, and glutamine potentiates leucine-induced insulin release. Alanine enhances and malate inhibits leucine plus glutamine-induced insulin release. The insulinotropic effect of leucine is at least in part secondary to its ability to activate glutamate oxidation by glutamate dehydrogenase (Sener, A.,(More)
From 11 studies, a total of 1,792 Caucasian probands with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are analyzed. Antigen genotype frequencies in patients, transmission from affected parents to affected children, and the relative frequencies of HLA-DR3 and -DR4 homozygous patients all indicate that DR3 predisposes in a "recessive"-like and DR4 in a(More)
Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. During postprandial periods an elevated level of plasma glucose rapidly stimulates insulin secretion to decrease hepatic glucose output and promote glucose uptake into(More)
A new clinical entity that is prevalent in young type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, postexercise late-onset (PEL) hypoglycemia, is described. A prospective case-finding study suggested that PEL hypoglycemia occurred in 48 of approximately 300 diabetic type I patients who were diagnosed as diabetic before age 20 yr and who were monitored for up to(More)
cDNAs which encode the rat testis and pancreatic islet mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) (EC 1.1.99.5), the key enzyme of the glycerol phosphate shuttle, were recently cloned and sequenced and found to contain calmodulin-like calcium-binding sequences, thus explaining the widely observed calcium activation of the enzyme from many tissues(More)
The mitochondria of pancreatic beta cells are believed to convert insulin secretagogues into products that are translocated to the cytosol where they participate in insulin secretion. We studied the hypothesis that short chain acyl-CoA (SC-CoAs) might be some of these products by discerning the pathways of SC-CoA formation in beta cells. Insulin(More)
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is defective in patients with type 2 diabetes. We sought to acquire new information about enzymes of glucose metabolism, with an emphasis on mitochondrial enzymes, by comparing pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetes patients with those of non-diabetic controls. METHODS Expression of genes encoding 13(More)
Rat pancreatic islets demonstrate inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase activity which is 3 times higher than that in the exocrine pancreas. This enzyme has several features in common with the erythrocyte and hepatocyte enzymes: it is located primarily in the plasma membrane, it has a similar Km for inositol trisphosphate (IP3) (16 microM), and(More)