Michael J. M. Williams

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Depth-stratified vertical sampling was carried out during the New Zealand International Polar Year cruise to the Ross Sea on board the RV Tangaroa in February–March 2008. The distribution (horizontal and vertical), density and population biology of Salpa thompsoni were investigated. Salps were found at two of the four major sampling locations, e.g. near the(More)
The propagation of large, storm-generated waves through sea ice has so far not been measured, limiting our understanding of how ocean waves break sea ice. Without improved knowledge of ice breakup, we are unable to understand recent changes, or predict future changes, in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. Here we show that storm-generated ocean waves propagating(More)
STUDY DESIGN A counterbalanced, repeated-measures design with ultrasound device (Omnisound 3000C, Dynatron 950, Excel Ultra III) as the independent variable. The 2 dependent variables were intramuscular (IM) temperature at 6 minutes and at the end of a 10-minute treatment. OBJECTIVE To compare IM temperatures produced by identical 3-MHz ultrasound(More)
Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be(More)
Up until now, only the floristic composition of large phytoplankton species has been studied in the Southern Ocean immediately south of New Zealand. To fill the gaps in our knowledge of the Antarctic phytoplankton flora and biomass, in relation to physical and chemical environments, New Zealand’s IPY project sampled water between New Zealand and Antarctica(More)
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