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The rigorous estimation of a dissociation constant (Kb) for antagonists in functional assays has been sought by pharmacologists using a variety of techniques ever since the regression method of Arunlakshana and Schild in 1959. Here, Michael Lew and James Angus describe a simplified global regression method with improved accuracy compared to Schild analysis.(More)
Binding of the peptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) to the type 1 (AT(1A)) receptor and the subsequent activation of phospholipase C-mediated signaling, involves specific determinants within the AngII peptide sequence. In contrast, the contribution of such determinants to AT(1A) receptor internalization, phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated(More)
Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess allosteric binding sites distinct from the orthosteric site utilized by their cognate ligands, but most GPCR allosteric modulators reported to date lack signaling efficacy in their own right. McN-A-343 (4-(N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride) is a functionally selective(More)
G protein-coupled receptors of nociceptive neurons can sensitize transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, which amplify neurogenic inflammation and pain. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), a receptor for inflammatory proteases, is a major mediator of neurogenic inflammation and pain. We investigated the signaling mechanisms by which PAR(2)(More)
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine, produced an apparent insurmountable antagonism of muscarinic M(1) receptor-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells when tested against the agonists carbachol or xanomeline. Each antagonist caused a dextral shift of the agonist(More)
Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (GVIA), an N-type calcium channel blocker from the cone shell Conus geographus, is a 27 residue polypeptide cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Here, we report the synthesis, structural analysis by (1)H NMR and bioassay of analogues of GVIA with disulfide bridge deletions and N- and C-terminal truncations. Two analogues that retain(More)
BACKGROUND In the hypertensive circulation, endothelial cells may release less nitric oxide or more endothelin-1, both powerful vasoactive substances, suggesting an attractive hypothesis for the initiation or reinforcement of hypertension. These substances, however, are not the only way that endothelial dysfunction could be involved in hypertension. In this(More)
THE CLINICAL PROBLEM: If a surgeon has performed a particular operation on n consecutive patients without major complications, what is the long-term risk of major complications after performing many more such operations? Examples of such operations are endoscopic cholecystectomy, nephrectomy and sympathectomy. THE STATISTICAL PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS: This(More)
The structure-function relationships of the N-type calcium channel blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA (GVIA), have been elucidated by structural, binding and in vitro and in vivo functional studies of alanine-substituted analogues of the native molecule. Alanine was substituted at all non-bridging positions in the sequence. In most cases the structure of the(More)
1. The interaction between the cannabinoid agonists, WIN 55,212-2 or CP 55,940 with the CB(1) receptor-selective antagonists, SR141716A or LY320135 was investigated using the rat electrically-stimulated vas deferens bioassay. 2. Tissues were stimulated by single-field pulses (150 V, 0.5 ms) delivered every 30 mins. In the presence of nifedipine (3 microM),(More)