Michael J. Levy

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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The Japan Pancreas Society criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) mandate presence of characteristic imaging (diffuse pancreatic enlargement with diffusely irregular, narrow pancreatic duct). AIP has unique histologic features associated with infiltration of tissues of affected organs with abundant IgG4-positive cells. We(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is the biliary manifestation of a steroid-responsive multisystem fibroinflammatory disorder in which affected organs have a characteristic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive cells. We describe clinical features, treatment response, and predictors of relapse in IAC and(More)
OBJECTIVES:To determine the sensitivity and specificity of elevated serum IgG4 level for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and its ability to distinguish AIP from pancreatic cancer, its main differential diagnosis.METHODS:We measured serum IgG4 levels (normal 8–140 mg/dL) in 510 patients including 45 with AIP, 135 with pancreatic cancer, 62(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Recent consensus guidelines suggest that presence of ≥1 of the following is an indication for resection (IR) of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN-Br): cyst-related symptoms, main pancreatic duct diameter ≥10 mm, cyst size ≥30 mm, intramural nodules, or cyst fluid cytology suspicious/positive for malignancy. Among(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been divided into subtypes 1 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and 2 (idiopathic duct centric pancreatitis). We compared clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of types 1 and 2 AIP. METHODS We compared clinical presentation, relapse, and vital status of 78 patients with type 1 AIP who met the(More)
BACKGROUND Screening individuals at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (PC) detects early, potentially curable, pancreatic neoplasia. OBJECTIVE To develop consortium statements on screening, surveillance and management of high-risk individuals with an inherited predisposition to PC. METHODS A 49-expert multidisciplinary international consortium met to(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy-digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant(More)
BACKGROUND:Celiac plexus neurolysis and block are considered safe but provide limited pain relief. Standard techniques target the region of the celiac plexus but do not attempt injections directly into celiac ganglia. The recent recognition that celiac ganglia can be visualized by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) now allows direct injection into celiac ganglia(More)