Michael J. Levene

Learn More
Optical approaches for observing the dynamics of single molecules have required pico- to nanomolar concentrations of fluorophore in order to isolate individual molecules. However, many biologically relevant processes occur at micromolar ligand concentrations, necessitating a reduction in the conventional observation volume by three orders of magnitude. We(More)
Although fluorescence microscopy has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in biology, its application to the intact animal has been limited to imaging several hundred micrometers below the surface. The rest of the animal has eluded investigation at the microscopic level without excising tissue or performing extensive surgery. However, the ability to(More)
Two-photon imaging of cortical neurons in vivo has provided unique insights into the structure, function, and plasticity of cortical networks, but this method does not currently allow simultaneous imaging of neurons in the superficial and deepest cortical layers. Here, we describe a simple modification that enables simultaneous, long-term imaging of all(More)
Typical imaging depths with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are limited to less than 300 mum in many tissues due to light scattering. Optical clearing significantly reduces light scattering by replacing water in the organ tissue with a fluid having a similar index of refraction to that of proteins. We demonstrate MPM of intact, fixed, cleared mouse organs with(More)
Micro-optical probes, including gradient index (GRIN) lenses and microprisms, have expanded the range of in vivo multiphoton microscopy to reach previously inaccessible deep brain structures such as deep cortical layers and the underlying hippocampus in mice. Yet imaging with GRIN lenses has been fundamentally limited by large amounts of spherical(More)
We present a protocol for in vivo imaging of cortical tissue using a deep-brain imaging probe in the shape of a microprism. Microprisms are 1-mm in size and have a reflective coating on the hypotenuse to allow internal reflection of excitation and emission light. The microprism probe simultaneously images multiple cortical layers with a perspective(More)
Resolving single fluorescent molecules in the presence of high fluorophore concentrations remains a challenge in single-molecule biophysics that limits our understanding of weak molecular interactions. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging, the workhorse of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, enables experiments at concentrations up to(More)
Cortical slices allow for simultaneous imaging of multiple cortical layers. However, slices lack native physiological inputs and outputs. Although in vivo, two-photon imaging preserves the native context, it is typically limited to a depth of <500 microm. In addition, simultaneous imaging of multiple cortical layers is difficult due to the stratified(More)
Understanding fluorescence propagation through a multiphoton microscope is of critical importance in designing high performance systems capable of deep tissue imaging. Optical models of a scattering tissue sample and the Olympus 20X 0.95NA microscope objective were used to simulate fluorescence propagation as a function of imaging depth for physiologically(More)
Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of molecules can reveal important information on the local microenvironment. NADH, an intrinsic fluorescent molecule and ubiquitous metabolic co-enzyme, has a lifetime that depends strongly on enzymatic binding. We present a custom image-processing algorithm for raw fluorescence lifetime and amplitude data(More)