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In this article we propose mechanisms that govern the processing of emotional information, particularly those involved in fear reduction. Emotions are viewed as represented by information structures in memory, and anxiety is thought to occur when an information structure that serves as program to escape or avoid danger is activated. Emotional processing is(More)
OBJECTIVE Three issues relevant to revising the DSM-III-R criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder were examined in a field trial: 1) the requirement that symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder be viewed by the patient as excessive or unreasonable, 2) the presence of mental compulsions in addition to behavioral compulsions, and 3) ICD-10 subcategories.(More)
There exists a divide between findings from integrative neuroscience and clinical research focused on mechanisms of psychopathology. Specifically, a clear correspondence does not emerge between clusters of complex clinical symptoms and dysregulated neurobiological systems, with many apparent redundancies. For instance, many mental disorders involve multiple(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study was to test the relative and combined efficacy of clomipramine and exposure and ritual prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive behavior therapy by exposure and ritual prevention are both established treatments for OCD, yet their(More)
One hundred and sixty patients with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder were enrolled in a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine. After a placebo washout phase, patients were randomized to treatment with placebo or fluvoxamine (100-300 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Seventy-eight patients in each group were(More)
We sought to determine whether adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who respond to intensive exposure and response (ritual) prevention (EX/RP) with or without clomipramine (CMI) fare better 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation than responders receiving CMI alone. After receiving 12 weeks of treatment (EX/RP, CMI, EX/RP+CMI, or pill placebo(More)
The efficacy of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) for reducing symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, procedures used in these studies to maximize experimental control may have limited their generalizability to typical clinical practice. Treatment outcome data from(More)
The prevailing view is that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are able to think rationally about their obsessive concerns and are thus able to recognize them as senseless. However, clinical observations indicate that at least some obsessive-compulsives do not regard their symptoms as unreasonable or excessive, and their ideas have been(More)