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The principles of recency and contiguity are two cornerstones of the theoretical and empirical analysis of human memory. Recency has been alternatively explained by mechanisms of decay, displacement, and retroactive interference. Another account of recency is based on the idea of variable context (Estes, 1955; Mensink & Raaijmakers, 1989). Such notions are(More)
In immediate free recall, words recalled successively tend to come from nearby serial positions. M. J. Kahana (1996) documented this effect and showed that this tendency, which the authors refer to as the lag recency effect, is well described by a variant of the search of associative memory (SAM) model (J. G. W. Raaijmakers & R. M. Shiffrin, 1980, 1981). In(More)
I present a new method for analyzing associative processes in free recall. While previous research has emphasized the prominence of semantic organization, the present method illustrates the importance of association by contiguity. This is done by examining conditional response probabilities in the output sequence. For a given item recalled, I examine the(More)
This article reexamines the theory and data concerning two opposing views of episodic association. The independent association hypothesis (IAH) sees associations as unidirectional and separately modifiable links between individual item representations. The associative symmetry hypothesis (ASH) sees an association as a holistic conjunction of the constituent(More)
Electrophysiological and hemodynamic measures of human brain activity have been shown to distinguish between episodes of encoding items that are later recalled versus those that are not recalled (Paller and Wagner, 2002). Using intracranial recordings from 793 widespread cortical and subcortical sites in 10 epileptic patients undergoing invasive monitoring,(More)
A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the relation between the spiking of individual neurons and the aggregate electrical activity of neuronal ensembles as seen in local field potentials (LFPs). Because LFPs reflect both spiking activity and subthreshold events, this question is not simply one of data aggregation. Recording from 20 neurosurgical(More)
Models of categorization typically rely on the use of stimuli composed of well-defined dimensions (e.g., Ashby & Maddox (1998) in Choice, decision, and measurement: Essays in honor of R. Duncan Luce, p. 251-301, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum). We apply a similar approach to the analysis of recognition memory. Using a version of short-term recognition paradigm(More)
Place cells of the rodent hippocampus constitute one of the most striking examples of a correlation between neuronal activity and complex behaviour in mammals. These cells increase their firing rates when the animal traverses specific regions of its surroundings, providing a context-dependent map of the environment. Neuroimaging studies implicate the(More)
The authors present the context maintenance and retrieval (CMR) model of memory search, a generalized version of the temporal context model of M. W. Howard and M. J. Kahana (2002a), which proposes that memory search is driven by an internally maintained context representation composed of stimulus-related and source-related features. In the CMR model,(More)