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In Parkinson's disease oxidative stress and calcium-induced excitotoxicity have been considered important mechanisms leading to cell death for decades, but the factors that make some neurons vulnerable to neurodegeneration while others remain resistant are not fully understood. Studies of the disorder in animal models suggest that the voltage-gated calcium(More)
Quantitative receptor autoradiography and in situ hybridization were used to investigate the expression of dopamine D3 receptors in sections of human brain containing limbic (nucleus accumbens) and striatal (caudate nucleus, putamen) regions. High levels of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA and specific [3H](+/-)7-hydroxy-N,N-di-N-propyl-2-aminotetralin(More)
The effect of acute and chronic administration of dopamine receptor antagonists on the expression of mRNA encoding the cellular immediate-early gene c-fos was investigated in rat brain by in situ hybridization using 35S-labelled oligonucleotide probes. The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist GR103691 had no effect on the level of c-fos mRNA after(More)
The presence of neuronal elements that are indicative of dopaminergic neurotransmission in cerebellum suggest that this brain region may contribute to the motor symptoms or dyskinesia seen in Parkinson's disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine the expression of markers for dopaminergic neurotransmission in the(More)
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA in post-mortem brain tissue obtained from normal subjects and patients dying with Parkinson’s disease. CB1 receptor mRNA was detected in striatal (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and putamen) and extrastriatal (globus pallidus,(More)
Since the introduction of dopamine replacement therapy using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyalanine (L-DOPA) to treat Parkinson's disease and the recognition of the problems associated with L-DOPA use, numerous studies have investigated dopamine receptor regulation and function in Parkinson's disease. These studies have provided insight into the pathological process(More)
l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease may result from aberrant glutamatergic stimulation of the striatum due to synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex or striatum as a consequence of adaptation of striatal output pathways. This might result from changes in NMDA receptor subunit or NMDA receptor(More)
The level of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in anterior striatum from normal and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) that had L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia. The level of(More)
The expression of the human dopamine D(1) receptor was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and radioligand binding using [(3)H]-SCH23390 in post-mortem brain tissue that was obtained from normal subjects and patients dying with Parkinson's disease who were receiving treatment with dopaminergic drugs. D(1) receptor mRNA and(More)
The effect of chronic treatment (21 days) with typical and atypical neuroleptics on the expression of striatal and limbic D2 and D3 dopamine receptors was investigated in rat brain by in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiography. Haloperidol and sulpiride increased D2 receptor expression in striatal and limbic areas. In contrast, clozapine had no(More)