Learn More
BACKGROUND Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling(More)
BACKGROUND Tick-borne pathogens cause emerging zoonoses, and include fastidious organisms such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of their obligate intracellular nature, methods for mutagenesis and transformation have not been available. RESULTS To facilitate genetic manipulation, we transformed A. phagocytophilum (Ap) to express a green fluorescent(More)
We developed and applied transposon-based transformation vectors for molecular manipulation and analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae, which are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect ticks and, in some cases, mammals. Using the Epicentre EZ::TN transposon system, we designed transposons for simultaneous expression of a reporter gene and a(More)
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a febrile tick-borne illness caused by a recently discovered intracellular bacterium remarkable for its tropism for professionally phagocytic neutrophils. Monoclonal antibodies against the P-selectin binding domain of the leukocyte P-selectin glycoprotein ligand, PSGL-1, prevented HGE cell binding and infection, as(More)
Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum are obligate intracellular, tick-borne pathogens that target erythrocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, respectively. Because ticks do not directly tap blood vessels, an intermediate tissue may mediate infection of blood cells. We considered that vascular endothelium interacts with circulating blood cells in vivo,(More)
Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Invasion of neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) by Ap is the hallmark of the disease, but these short-lived phagocytes are not likely the sole cell type required for productive infection. We analyzed infection of microvascular endothelial cells during(More)
To assess the esterase dependency of human neutrophil secretion of lysosomal enzyme, the influence of several aromatic amino acid esters on phorbol myristate acetate-induced release of lysozome was studied. This function was found to be esterase-dependent on the basis of the inhibitory influence of such esters. Of the esters tested, tryptophan octyl ester,(More)
Trichophyton rubrum causes 90% of chronic dermatophyte infections. Most patients with widespread chronic T. rubrum infection fail to express a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to intradermally injected trichophytin. We propose that cell-mediated immunity to T. rubrum may be suppressed in chronic infections by the mannan cell wall component of the fungus.(More)
Interactions between P-selectin, expressed on endothelial cells and activated platelets, and its leukocyte ligand, a homodimer termed P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), mediate the earliest adhesive events during an inflammatory response. To investigate whether dimerization of PSGL-1 is essential for functional interactions with P-selectin, a mutant(More)
A system was described for studying bovine leukotaxis. Chemotaxis was readily observed toward bovine serum activated by zymosan of agarose. However, bacterial culture filtrates and peptides, which were potent chemotaxins for leukocytes from other species, failed to affect bovine leukotaxis. Using conditions suitable for studying binding to leukocytes from(More)