Michael J. Giffin

Learn More
DNA binding by NFAT1 as a dimer has been implicated in the activation of host and viral genes. Here we report a crystal structure of NFAT1 bound cooperatively as a dimer to the highly conserved κB site from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). This structure reveals a new mode of dimerization and protein-DNA recognition by(More)
Treatment with HIV-1 protease inhibitors, a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), often results in viral resistance. Structural and biochemical characterization of a 6X protease mutant arising from in vitro selection with compound 1, a C 2-symmetric diol protease inhibitor, has been previously described. We now show that compound 2, a(More)
DNA binding by NFAT1 as a dimer has been implicated in the activation of host and viral genes. Here we report a crystal structure of NFAT1 bound cooperatively as a dimer to the highly conserved kappa B site from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). This structure reveals a new mode of dimerization and protein-DNA(More)
Mu transposase is a member of a protein family that includes many transposases and the retroviral integrases. These recombinases catalyze the DNA cleavage and joining reactions essential for transpositional recombination. Here we demonstrate that, consistent with structural predictions, aspartate 336 of Mu transposase is required for catalysis of both DNA(More)
The host factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), regulates the transcription and replication of HIV-1. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of NFAT bound to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) tandem kappaB enhancer element at 3.05 A resolution. NFAT binds as a dimer to the upstream kappaB site (Core II), but(More)
Clinically approved inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease function via a competitive mechanism. A particular vulnerability of competitive inhibitors is their sensitivity to increases in substrate concentration, as may occur during virion assembly, budding and processing into a mature infectious viral particle. Advances in chemical synthesis have led to the(More)
Darren L. Bates,1 Kristen K.B. Barthel,1 Yongqing Wu,2 Reza Kalhor,2 James C. Stroud,1 Michael J. Giffin,1 and Lin Chen2,* 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA 2Molecular and Computational Biology, Department of Chemistry, Norris Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los(More)
  • 1