Michael J. Duffy

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The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) system consists of the serine proteinases plasmin and u-PA; the serpin inhibitors alpha2-anti-plasmin, PAI-1 and PAI-2; and the u-PA receptor (u-PAR). Two lines of evidence have strongly suggested an important and apparently causal role for the u-PA system in cancer metastasis: results from experimental model(More)
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases. Their primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix. Currently, at least 19 members of this family are known to exist. Based on substrate specificity and domain organization, the MMPs can be loosely divided into four main groups: the interstitial(More)
The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system consists of the serine protease uPA, the glycolipid-anchored receptor, uPAR, and the 2 serpin inhibitors, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2). Recent findings suggest that uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Consistent(More)
The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system consists of the serine protease uPA, its glycolipid-anchored receptor, uPAR and its 2 serpin inhibitors, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2). Recent findings suggest that the uPA system is causally involved at multiple steps in cancer progression. In(More)
BACKGROUND Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed. RESULTS For testicular(More)
Trastuzumab and lapatinib provide clinical benefit to women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER)-positive breast cancer. However, not all patients whose tumors contain the HER2 alteration respond. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify new predictive factors for these agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use(More)
BACKGROUND Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor markers worldwide. Its main application is mostly in gastrointestinal cancers, especially in colorectal malignancy. Although in use for almost 30 years, the clinical value of CEA in colorectal cancer is still not clear. METHODS The literature relevant to the clinical value of(More)
The aim of this article is to present updated guidelines for the use of serum, tissue and faecal markers in colorectal cancer (CRC). Lack of specificity and sensitivity preclude the use of all existing serum markers for the early detection of CRC. For patients with stage II or stage III CRC who may be candidates for either liver resection or systemic(More)
Survivin is one of the most cancer-specific proteins identified to date, being upregulated in almost all human tumors. Biologically, survivin has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, enhance proliferation and promote angiogenesis. Because of its upregulation in malignancy and its key role in apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis, survivin is currently(More)