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ACE2, the first known human homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was identified from 5' sequencing of a human heart failure ventricle cDNA library. ACE2 has an apparent signal peptide, a single metalloprotease active site, and a transmembrane domain. The metalloprotease catalytic domains of ACE2 and ACE are 42% identical, and comparison of the(More)
A mutation was targeted to the murine alpha3 integrin gene. Homozygous mutant mice survived to birth, but died during the neonatal period. The mutation caused abnormal kidney and lung development. Mutant kidneys displayed decreased branching of the medullary collecting ducts, although the number of nephrons was not altered. Proximal tubules exhibited two(More)
Smad proteins are intracellular mediators of signalling initiated by Tgf-betasuperfamily ligands (Tgf-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps)). Smads 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 are activated upon phosphorylation by specific type I receptors, and associate with the common partner Smad4 to trigger transcriptional responses. The inhibitory Smads (6 and 7)(More)
The neurotrophins, a family of related polypeptide growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4/5 promote the survival and differentiation of distinctive sets of embryonic neurons. Here we define a new functional role for neurotrophins, as autocrine or local paracrine mediators(More)
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer morbidity, but strategies for direct interference with invasion processes are lacking. Dedifferentiated, late-stage tumor cells secrete multiple factors that represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we show that metastatic potential of oncogenic mammary epithelial cells requires an autocrine(More)
We have generated null mutant mice that lack expression of all isoforms encoded by the trkC locus. These mice display a behavioral phenotype characterized by a loss of proprioceptive neurons. Neuronal counts of sensory ganglia in the trkC mutant mice reveal less severe losses than those in NT-3 null mutant mice, strongly suggesting that NT-3, in vivo, may(More)
PURPOSE For patients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy, no current personalized tools predict clinical failure (CF; metastasis and/or androgen-independent disease). We developed such a tool through integration of clinicopathologic data with image analysis and quantitative immunofluorescence of prostate cancer tissue. PATIENTS AND(More)
Using the Illumina 450K array and a stringent statistical analysis with age and gender correction, we report genome-wide differences in DNA methylation between pathology-free regions derived from human multiple sclerosis-affected and control brains. Differences were subtle, but widespread and reproducible in an independent validation cohort. The(More)
The salient feature of dendritic cells (DC) is the initiation of appropriate adaptive immune responses by discriminating between pathogens. Using a prototypic model of intracellular infection, we previously showed that Leishmania major parasites prime human DC for efficient interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. L. major infection is associated with(More)
The Wt1 gene, originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene associated with Wilms' tumors, encodes a zinc finger containing transcription factor expressed during gonadal and kidney development. Although Wt1 appears to be required for gonadal and kidney development, no reproductive defects were observed in outbred females heterozygous for a targeted(More)