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PURPOSE OF REVIEW Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug being used to treat human schistosomiasis on a large scale. This review focuses on current knowledge about the mechanisms of action of PZQ, prospects for PZQ resistance, possible future alternative drugs and on exhortations that control of schistosomiasis and other so-called neglected tropical diseases(More)
Evidence for resistance to praziquantel (PZQ) in Schistosoma mansoni has been sought in parasites taken from treated, but uncured human patients, and in a laboratory isolate of S. mansoni subjected to successive passages under drug pressure. Patients from villages in Egypt and Senegal have yielded isolates that can tolerate higher dosages of PZQ than other(More)
The eggs of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni are powerful inducers of a T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. S. mansoni egg extract (SmEA) stimulates human basophils to rapidly release large amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, the key promoter of a Th2 response. Here we show purification and sequence of the(More)
Cercarial secretions from different species of the parasite Schistosoma and from Trichobilharzia ocellata contain a proteolytic activity, cercarial elastase, which was demonstrated by a 30 kDa band in gelatin gels. Sera of patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium or Schistosoma japonicum contain immunoglobulin G which react in(More)
If there is a change in the biological characteristics of schistosomes associated with the development of resistance to praziquantel, this could affect the transmission and pathology of the diseases they cause. To investigate this possibility, the host-parasite relationships of five praziquantel-resistant and five praziquantel-susceptible isolates of(More)
T cell-deprived mice acutely infected with S. mansoni suffer microvesicular hepatocyte damage which is not seen in infected, immunological intact animals. A cationic fraction (CEF6) of the PBS-soluble portion of S. mansoni eggs (SEA) induces antibodies which, on passive transfer, prevent hepatocyte damage. CEF6 contains 2 antigens, omega 1 and alpha 1, and(More)
Mice were treated with potassium antimony tartrate, hycanthone, oxamniquine, niridazole, or praziquantel at different times after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The rate of cure was assessed by perfusion of surviving worms approximately 4 weeks after treatment, and the percentage reduction in worm burden was estimated relative to the number of adult(More)
Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice were treated with subcurative multiple doses of either praziquantel (PZQ) or oxamniquine (OX). With an early exception, the drug treatments commenced when the worms were adult, but before the infections had become fully patent, and the eggs subsequently produced by worms that had survived the drug treatments were used(More)
The resistance status of five praziquantel-susceptible and five praziquantel-resistant isolates was confirmed by chemotherapy in CD(1) mice with 3 x 200mg/kg micronised praziquantel. Micronised praziquantel had higher efficacy than two other praziquantel formulations (prepared without milling). The five resistant isolates were less responsive to(More)