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1. The finding that the plant is the genetic determinant of leghaemoglobin production in legume nodules was further tested by inoculating snake beans with two strains of Rhizobium selected to give large genetic differences. Carbohydrate requirement patterns, immunological techniques and DNA base ratio determinations were used to demonstrate genetic(More)
The enzymes involved in the assimilation of ammonia by free-living cultures of Rhizobium spp. are glutamine synthetase (EC. 6.o.I.2), glutamate synthase (L-glutamine:2-oxoglutarate amino transferase) and glutamate dehydrogenase (ED I.4.I.4). Under conditions of ammonia or nitrate limitation in a chemostat the assimilation of ammonia by cultures of R.(More)
Biological nitrogen fixation, especially via the legume Rhizobium symbiosis, is important for world agriculture. The productivity of legume crops and pastures is significantly affected by soil acidity; in some cases it is the prokaryotic partner that is pH sensitive. Growth of Rhizobium is adversely affected by low pH, especially in the 'acid stress zone'.(More)
Strains of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from nitrogen-fixing nodules of the native legumes Listia angolensis (from Zambia) and Lupinus texensis (from Texas, USA). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the novel strains belong to the genus Microvirga, with ≥ 96.1% sequence similarity with type strains(More)
ActS-ActR proteins belong to a highly conserved family of two-component signal transduction systems involved in global regulation in the alpha-proteobacteria; they were first identified in Sinorhizobium medicae (previously Sinorhizobium meliloti) as essential for acid-tolerance. This paper reports on the identification of genes regulated by ActS and/or ActR(More)
A cluster of eight genes, vbsGSO, vbsADL, vbsC and vbsP, are involved in the synthesis of vicibactin, a cyclic, trihydroxamate siderophore made by the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum. None of these vbs genes was required for symbiotic N2 fixation on peas or Vicia. Transcription of vbsC, vbsGSO and vbsADL (but not vbsP) was enhanced by growth in(More)
Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) A17 is currently being sequenced as a model legume, complementing the sequenced root nodule bacterial strain Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 (Sm1021). In this study, the effectiveness of the Sm1021-M. truncatula symbiosis at fixing N(2) was evaluated. N(2) fixation effectiveness was examined with eight Medicago species and(More)
This chapter aims to survey the problems faced by bacteria found in environments of adverse pH, to review strategies used to combat those problems and to ask how those strategies are implemented. At acid or alkaline pH, bacteria are challenged not just by excess of H+ or OH- but also by excess of metal ions (aluminium, heavy metals at acidic pH, Na+ at(More)
A mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum was isolated which fails to take up the siderophore vicibactin. The mutation is in a homologue of fhuB, which in Escherichia coli specifies an inner-membrane protein of the ferric hydroxamate uptake system. In Rhizobium, fhuB is in an operon fhuDCB, which specifies the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic proteins(More)