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Spatial-temporal flexibility of the actin filament network (F-actin) is essential for all basic cellular functions and is governed by a stochastic dynamic model. In this model, actin filaments that randomly polymerise from a pool of free actin are bundled with other filaments and severed by ADF/cofilin. The fate of the severed fragments is not known. It has(More)
The dynamic nature of the eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is essential for the locomotion of animal cells and the morphogenesis of plant and fungal cells. The F-actin nucleating/branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex is a key function for all of these processes. The SCAR/WAVE family represents a group of Arp2/3 activators that are associated with(More)
Complex animals use a wide variety of adaptor proteins to produce specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes. Plants do not have these protein families, yet actin-membrane interactions within plant cells are critical for the positioning of subcellular compartments, for coordinating intercellular communication, and for membrane deformation.(More)
The dynamic behaviour of the actin cytoskeleton in plants relies on the coordinated action of several classes of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). These ABPs include the plant-specific subfamilies of actin-nucleating formin proteins. The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has over 20 formin proteins, all of which contain plant-specific regions in place(More)
The control of cell growth and polarity depends on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton that has the ability to reorganize in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. In animals and fungi, formins are just one of the four major classes of poly-L-proline-containing (PLP) proteins that form part of the signal-transduction cascade that leads to(More)
The actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex is essential for life in yeast and animals, but not in plants, in which mutants of Arp2/3 complex components show relatively minor developmental abnormalities. Animal cells control the activity of the Arp2/3 complex through the suppressor of cyclic AMP receptor (SCAR) complex to achieve cell motility. Amazingly, plants(More)
Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the activity of actin-binding proteins is proving to be(More)
The closely related proteins AtFH4 and AtFH8 represent the group Ie clade of Arabidopsis formin homologues. The subcellular localization of these proteins and their ability to affect the actin cytoskeleton were examined. AtFH4 protein activity was identified using fluorimetric techniques. Interactions between Arabidopsis profilin isoforms and AtFH4 were(More)
The actin-nucleating ARP2-ARP3 complex controls cell shape in plants in many different cell types. Its activity is controlled by a multimeric complex containing BRK1 (also known as HSPC300), NAP1, SRA1, ABI and SCAR/WAVE. In this study, we focus on the function of the five putative SCAR homologues in Arabidopsis and we provide biochemical evidence that(More)
The shape of plant cells is reliant upon an organised actin network. A series of recent publications have emphasised the central role played by the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex in plant growth. In animals and fungi, the Arp2/3 complex influences cell motility and morphogenesis through its ability to nucleate actin filaments locally in response to cell(More)