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Much of software developers' time is spent understanding unfamiliar code. To better understand how developers gain this understanding and how software development environments might be involved, a study was performed in which developers were given an unfamiliar program and asked to work on two debugging tasks and three enhancement tasks for 70 minutes. The(More)
There are many common spreadsheet errors that traditional spreadsheet systems do not help users find. This paper presents a statically-typed spreadsheet language that adds additional information about the objects that the spreadsheet values represent. By annotating values with both units and labels, users denote both the system of measurement in which the(More)
Though immutability has been long-proposed as a way to prevent bugs in software, little is known about how to make immutability support in programming languages effective for software engineers. We designed a new formalism that extends Java to support transitive class immutability, the form of immutability for which there is the strongest empirical support,(More)
Recent research has shown that developers spend significant amounts of time navigating around code. Much of this time is spent on redundant navigations to code that the developer previously found. This is necessary today because existing development environments do not enable users to easily collect relevant information, such as web pages, textual notes,(More)
Programming languages can restrict state change by preventing it entirely (immutability) or by restricting which clients may modify state (read-only restrictions). The benefits of immutability and read-only restrictions in software structures have been long-argued by practicing software engineers, researchers, and programming language designers. However,(More)
an IBM Eclipse Innovation Award. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity. Acknowledgments I am very grateful for the wonderful support I have received(More)
Cilk Plus and OpenMP are parallel language extensions for the C and C++ programming languages. The CPLEX Study Group of the ISO/IEC C Standards Committee is developing a proposal for a parallel programming extension to C that combines ideas from Cilk Plus and OpenMP. We conducted a preliminary comparison of Cilk Plus and OpenMP in a master's level course on(More)
Static types may be used both by the language implementation and directly by the user as documentation. Though much existing work focuses primarily on the implications of static types on the semantics of programs, relatively little work considers the impact on usability that static types provide. Though the omission of static type information may decrease(More)
Many programming languages provide features that express restrictions on which data structures can be changed. For example, C++ includes const and Java includes final. Languages that are in widespread use typically provide non-transitive immutability: when a reference is specified to be immutable or read-only, the object referenced can still reference(More)