Michael J Carvan

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Exposure to ethanol during development can lead to a constellation of congenital anomalies, resulting in prenatal and postnatal failure to thrive, central nervous system (CNS) deficits, and a number of patterning defects that lead to defects in the cardiovascular system, facial structures, and limbs. The cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by(More)
Sex determination can be robustly genetic, strongly environmental, or genetic subject to environmental perturbation. The genetic basis of sex determination is unknown for zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model for development and human health. We used RAD-tag population genomics to identify sex-linked polymorphisms. After verifying this "RAD-sex" method on medaka(More)
Genetic differences in environmental toxicity and cancer susceptibility among individuals in a human population often reflect polymorphisms in the genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters, and receptors that control DME levels. This field of study is called "ecogenetics", and a subset of this field--concerning genetic variability(More)
TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor in nearly all vertebrates; however, the mechanisms by which TCDD alters the reproductive system is not well understood. The zebrafish provides a powerful vertebrate model system to investigate molecular mechanisms by which TCDD affects the reproductive system, but(More)
We previously reported that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in the brain stem of male polar bears. Here, we conveniently use archived tissues obtained from controlled laboratory exposure studies to look for evidence that MeHg can disrupt DNA methylation across taxa. Brain (cerebrum) tissues from MeHg-exposed mink(More)
BACKGROUND Methylmercury (MeHg) is a known neurotoxic agent, but the mechanisms by which MeHg may act on reproductive pathways are relatively unknown. Several studies have indicated potential changes in hormone levels as well as declines in vertebrates with increasing dietary MeHg exposure. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to identify alterations(More)
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and has been shown to affect learning in vertebrates following relatively low exposures. Zebrafish were used to model long-term learning deficits after developmental MeHg exposure. Selenomethionine (SeMet) co-exposure was used to evaluate its role in neuroprotection. Embryos were exposed from 2 to(More)
It has been proposed that transgenic zebrafish could be designed to detect low levels of chemical contaminants that cause oxidative stress in aquatic environments, such as heavy metals or pesticides. In this paper, we describe such a transgenic zebrafish that produces a luciferase–green fluorescent protein (LUC–GFP) fusion protein under conditions of(More)
Ethanol intake during pregnancy can produce a wide range of adverse effects on nervous system development including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The most severe congenital malformation observed in newborns with FAS is cyclopia. In this study, we have exposed zebrafish embryos to different ethanol concentrations (2.4%, 1.5% or 1.0%) during eye morphogenesis(More)
The environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent endocrine disruptor with the ability to affect several biologic processes, including reproduction. In fish, sublethal exposure to TCDD is known to modulate overall reproductive capacity, but impacts on follicular development and vitellogenesis are unknown. Here we show that(More)