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We present ProB, an animation and model checking tool for the B method. ProB's animation facilities allow users to gain confidence in their specifications, and unlike the animator provided by the B-Toolkit, the user does not have to guess the right values for the operation arguments or choice variables. ProB contains a model checker and a constraint-based(More)
Event-B is a formal method for system-level modelling and analysis. Key features of Event-B are the use of set theory as a modelling notation, the use of refinement to represent systems at different abstraction levels and the use of mathematical proof to verify consistency between refinement levels. In this article we present the Rodin modelling tool that(More)
The emergence of the UML as a de facto standard for object-oriented modeling has been mirrored by the success of the B method as a practically useful formal modeling technique. The two notations have much to offer each other. The UML provides an accessible visualization of models facilitating communication of ideas but lacks formal precise semantics. B, on(More)
A long-running transaction is an interactive component of a distributed system which must be executed as if it were a single atomic action. In principle, it should not be interrupted or fail in the middle, and it must not be interleaved with other atomic actions of other concurrently executing components of the system. In practice, the illusion of atomicity(More)
This paper presents the StAC language and its operational semantics. StAC (Structured Activity Compensation) is a business process modelling language and a distinctive feature of the language is its support for compensation. A compensation is an action taken to recover from error or cope with a change of plan, especially when rollback of a process is not(More)
Web services composition is an emerging paradigm for the integration of long running business processes, attracting the interest of both Industry, in terms of XML-based standards for business description, and Academy, exploiting process description languages. The key challenging aspects to model are orchestration workflows, choreography of exchanged(More)
System availability is improved by the replication of data objects in a distributed database system. However, during updates, the complexity of keeping replicas identical arises due to failures of sites and race conditions among conflicting transactions. Fault tolerance and reliability are key issues to be addressed in the design and architecture of these(More)