Michael J. Butler

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We present ProB, an animation and model checking tool for the B method. ProB’s animation facilities allow users to gain confidence in their specifications, and unlike the animator provided by the B-Toolkit, the user does not have to guess the right values for the operation arguments or choice variables. ProB contains a model checker and a constraint-based(More)
Event-B is a formal method for system-level modelling and analysis. Key features of Event-B are the use of set theory as a modelling notation, the use of refinement to represent systems at different abstraction levels and the use of mathematical proof to verify consistency between refinement levels. In this article we present the Rodin modelling tool that(More)
We present ProB, a validation toolset for the B method. ProB’s automated animation facilities allow users to gain confidence in their specifications. ProB also contains a model checker and a refinement checker, both of which can be used to detect various errors in B specifications. We describe the underlying methodology of ProB, and present the important(More)
This paper presents the StAC language and its operational semantics. StAC (Structured Activity Compensation) is a business process modelling language and a distinctive feature of the language is its support for compensation. A compensation is an action taken to recover from error or cope with a change of plan, especially when rollback of a process is not(More)
The emergence of the UML as a de facto standard for object-oriented modeling has been mirrored by the success of the B method as a practically useful formal modeling technique. The two notations have much to offer each other. The UML provides an accessible visualization of models facilitating communication of ideas but lacks formal precise semantics. B, on(More)
A long-running transaction is an interactive component of a distributed system which must be executed as if it were a single atomic action. In principle, it should not be interrupted or fail in the middle, and it must not be interleaved with other atomic actions of other concurrently executing components of the system. In practice, the illusion of atomicity(More)
We consider modelling indispensable for the development of complex systems. Modelling must be carried out in a formal notation to reason and make meaningful conjectures about a model. But formal modelling of complex systems is a difficult task. Even when theorem provers improve further and get more powerful, modelling will remain difficult. The reason for(More)
TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM-17) is a membrane-bound disintegrin metalloproteinase that processes the membrane-associated cytokine proTNF-alpha to a soluble form. Because of its putative involvement in inflammatory diseases, TACE represents a significant target for the design of specific synthetic inhibitors as therapeutic agents. In order to(More)
We have used C-terminal domain mutants to further define the role of interactions of progelatinase A and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1 MMP) in the binding of TIMP2 and in the cell-associated activation of progelatinase A. Soluble constructs of MT1 MMP were used to demonstrate that binding with TIMP2 occurs primarily through N-terminal domain(More)
Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) messenger RNA and protein expression were shown to be elevated in human fibroblasts following treatment with concanavalin A, coincident with the induction of the ability to process progelatinase A. CHO cells transfected with the cDNA for MT-MMP were able to process both wild type progelatinase A and a(More)