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Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of(More)
These subsurface cisternae have been clas-The Babraham Institute sified into different types depending on how closely they Babraham Laboratory of Molecular Signalling approach the plasma membrane (Takahashi and Wood, Cambridge CB2 4AT 1970). The type I come within 40–80 nm, whereas the United Kingdom type II and III come much closer (20 nm) and often follow(More)
The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning(More)
Ca2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. An extensive Ca2+-signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal dynamics. Rapid highly localized Ca2+ spikes regulate fast responses, whereas slower responses are(More)
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is a second messenger which regulates intracellular calcium both by mobilizing calcium from internal stores and, perhaps indirectly, by stimulating calcium entry. In these actions it may function with its phosphorylated metabolite, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. The subtlety of calcium regulation by inositol phosphates is(More)
1. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate hormone-induced subcellular Ca2+ release signals from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a prototype non-excitable cell line (HeLa cells). 2. Histamine application evoked two types of elementary Ca2+ signals: (i) Ca2+ blips arising from single ER Ca2+ release channels (amplitude, 30 nM; lateral spreading, 1.3(More)
Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger used to regulate a wide range of cellular processes. This role in signalling has to be conducted against the rigid homeostatic mechanisms that ensure that the resting level of Ca2+ is kept low (i.e. between 20 and 100 nmol l-1) in order to avoid the cytotoxic effects of a prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]. Cells have(More)
In a variety of cells, hormonal or neurotransmitter signals elicit a train of intracellular Ca2+ spikes. The analysis of a minimal model based on Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores shows how sustained oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ may develop as a result of a rise in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) triggered by external stimulation.(More)
Recent studies have suggested that global intracellular Ca2+ signals arise from the summation and coordination of subcellular elementary release events (e.g., "Ca2+ puffs"), although the modes of recruitment of such signals are unknown. In order to understand how cells utilize elementary Ca2+ release events, we imaged Ca2+ transients evoked through the(More)