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These subsurface cisternae have been clas-The Babraham Institute sified into different types depending on how closely they Babraham Laboratory of Molecular Signalling approach the plasma membrane (Takahashi and Wood, Cambridge CB2 4AT 1970). The type I come within 40–80 nm, whereas the United Kingdom type II and III come much closer (20 nm) and often follow(More)
Ca2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. An extensive Ca2+-signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal dynamics. Rapid highly localized Ca2+ spikes regulate fast responses, whereas slower responses are(More)
The universality of calcium as an intracellular messenger depends on its enormous versatility. Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning(More)
Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of(More)
In a variety of cells, hormonal or neurotransmitter signals elicit a train of intracellular Ca2+ spikes. The analysis of a minimal model based on Ca2(+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores shows how sustained oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ may develop as a result of a rise in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) triggered by external stimulation.(More)
1. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate hormone-induced subcellular Ca2+ release signals from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a prototype non-excitable cell line (HeLa cells). 2. Histamine application evoked two types of elementary Ca2+ signals: (i) Ca2+ blips arising from single ER Ca2+ release channels (amplitude, 30 nM; lateral spreading, 1.3(More)
Recent studies have suggested that global intracellular Ca2+ signals arise from the summation and coordination of subcellular elementary release events (e.g., "Ca2+ puffs"), although the modes of recruitment of such signals are unknown. In order to understand how cells utilize elementary Ca2+ release events, we imaged Ca2+ transients evoked through the(More)
Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger used to regulate a wide range of cellular processes. This role in signalling has to be conducted against the rigid homeostatic mechanisms that ensure that the resting level of Ca2+ is kept low (i.e. between 20 and 100 nmol l-1) in order to avoid the cytotoxic effects of a prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]. Cells have(More)