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A method of clinical staging for infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is proposed. On the basis of assigned stage at the time of diagnosis, 48 infants were treated with graded intervention. For Stage I infants, vigorous diagnostic and supportive measures are appropriate. Stage II infants are treated medically, including parenteral and gavage(More)
Excellent results can be achieved by plating fractures of the shaft of the humerus in patients with multiple injuries. This helps in nursing care and in the management of other injuries. In 38 patients admitted to a regional trauma centre, 39 humeral shaft fractures were plated. There were 27 men and 11 women, with an average age of 31.5 years. Fourteen of(More)
We made a prospective study of 111 children with acute hip pain to assess whether ultrasound can replace traditional radiography. An effusion was diagnosed in 71% by ultrasound but in only 15% by radiography. This effusion persisted for a mean of nine days; symptoms lasted for five days. Two patients found to have Perthes' disease had longer-lasting(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether bcl-2, a protein that inhibits apoptosis, would be increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infants and children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine the association of bcl-2 concentration with clinical variables. STUDY DESIGN Bcl-2 was measured in CSF from 23 children (aged 2 months-16 years) with severe TBI(More)
Cytokines may play an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cyotkine that plays a role in regenerative processes within the central nervous system (CNS), whereas interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antiinflammatory cytokine. Both have been measured in serum and cerebrospinal(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence and clinical consequences of postoperative hyponatremia in children. STUDY DESIGN We performed a retrospective analysis of postoperative admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (excluding cardiac, neurosurgical, and renal). The incidence of severe (serum sodium < 125 mmol/L or symptoms) and moderate (serum(More)
We report the ulnar impingement syndrome, which is caused by a shortened ulna impinging on the distal radius and causing a painful, disabling pseudarthrosis. Of the 11 cases reported, 10 were due to excision of the distal ulna after injury to the wrist; the other was a result of a growth arrest after a fracture of the distal ulna in a child. The symptoms(More)
In the adult intestine, an organized array of finger-like projections, called villi, provide an enormous epithelial surface area for absorptive function. Villi first emerge at embryonic day (E) 14.5 from a previously flat luminal surface. Here, we analyze the cell biology of villus formation and examine the role of paracrine epithelial Hedgehog (Hh) signals(More)
Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules, critical to the development of acute inflammation, are expressed in brain as part of the acute inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We measured the concentrations of the adhesion molecules P-selectin, ICAM-1, E-selectin, L-selectin, and VCAM-1 in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children(More)
α-Synuclein is one of the most abundant proteins in presynaptic terminals. Normal expression of α-synuclein is essential for neuronal survival and it prevents the initiation of apoptosis in neurons through covalent cross-linking of cytochrome c released from mitochondria. Exocytosis of α-synuclein occurs with neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, making its(More)