Michael J. Arrowood

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To assess the genetic diversity in Cryptosporidium parvum, we have sequenced the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of seven Cryptosporidium spp., various isolates of C. parvum from eight hosts, and a Cryptosporidium isolate from a desert monitor. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA sequences confirmed the multispecies nature of the genus Cryptosporidium, with(More)
We analyzed 92 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate between the two genotypes of C. parvum and elucidate the transmission of(More)
The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for Cryptosporidium: Nine different types of Cryptosporidium were(More)
Techniques for the large-scale isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites, obtained from the feces of experimentally infected Holstein calves, were developed employing discontinuous sucrose gradients and isopycnic Percoll gradients. The oocyst recovery method utilized 2 sequential discontinuous sucrose gradients followed by 1 Percoll gradient.(More)
Previous studies have suggested that persons infected with Cryptosporidium parvum develop antibody responses to 27-, 17-, and 15-kDa C. parvum antigens. Studies of volunteers infected with Cryptosporidium species provided an opportunity to evaluate the relationship between antibody reactivity to these antigens and infection outcome. As monitored by(More)
Using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we identified four distinct Cryptosporidium genotypes in HIV-infected patients: genotype 1 (human), genotype 2 (bovine) Cryptosporidium parvum, a genotype identical to C. felis, and one identical to a Cryptosporidium sp. isolate from a dog. This is the first identification of human infection with the latter(More)
An existing method for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water was modified to investigate oocyst prevalence in large volumes of water. Surface waters and sewage effluents were filtered, eluted from the filter, and concentrated using centrifugation. The resultant pellet was then homogenized, sonicated, and placed on a sucrose gradient to separate(More)
The in vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium has advanced significantly in recent years. These obligate, intracellular parasites colonize the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory tracts, are often difficult to obtain in significant numbers, produce durable oocysts that defy conventional chemical disinfection methods,(More)
Human infection with Cryptosporidium parvum usually elicits characteristic immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibody responses against two sporozoite surface antigens with apparent molecular masses of approximately 27 and 17 kDa. We have determined that these two antigens are actually complex families of related antigens. We have developed two new(More)