Michael J. Armstrong

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Results from the testing of 108 coded chemicals in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are presented. All chemicals were tested with and without exogenous metabolic activation, using protocols designed to allow testing up to toxic doses. Cell harvest times could also be extended(More)
Chromosome aberrations can occur by secondary mechanism(s) associated with cytotoxicity, induced by chemicals that do not attack DNA. Aberrations are formed from DNA double-strand breaks, and DSBs are known to be induced by nonmutagenic (Ames test negative) noncarcinogens at toxic levels [Storer et al. (1996): Mutat Res 368:59-101]. Here, 8 of 12 of these(More)
International guidelines for cytotoxicity limits for the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay require reductions in cell growth of greater than 50%. This sets no upper limit on toxicity and there is concern about the number of false or irrelevant results obtained in the aberration assay, i.e., positive results at toxic dose levels only, with no evidence(More)
Choice of harvest time is one of the most important variables in the assessment of whether a compound is clastogenic and in establishing a dose relation. We examined the effects of sampling time on aberration yield for 7 diverse chemicals in CHO-WBL cells by harvesting at intervals from 9 to 30 h after treatment for 3 h with or without S9 metabolic(More)
Certain chemicals that are either weak or non-carcinogens had been previously shown to induce DNA single-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes, but only at cytotoxic doses. In contrast, stronger carcinogens induced DNA single-strand breaks at non-toxic doses. This report shows that the strong carcinogens and mutagens cadmium sulfate, sodium dichromate, dimethyl(More)
O6-Methylguanine (O6MeG) is important in induction of chromosome aberrations (abs), with the unusual property that new abs are produced in the second cycle after treatment; cells lacking repair by O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) have more abs at the second division (M2) than at the first (M1). These second-cycle abs are likely caused by attempted(More)
Positive results in the in vitro assay for chromosome aberrations sometimes occur with test chemicals that apparently do not react with DNA, being negative in tests for mutation in bacteria, for DNA strand breaks, and for covalent binding to DNA. These chromosome aberrations typically occur over a narrow concentration range at toxic doses, and with mitotic(More)
3-Methylindole (3MI), melatonin (Mel), serotonin (Ser), and tryptamine (Tryp) were evaluated in vitro for their potential to induce DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations (Abs), inhibition of DNA synthesis, and mutations. All compounds produced DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA in the presence of rat liver S9. In cultured rat hepatocytes, all(More)