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Results from the testing of 108 coded chemicals in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are presented. All chemicals were tested with and without exogenous metabolic activation, using protocols designed to allow testing up to toxic doses. Cell harvest times could also be extended(More)
Positive results in the in vitro assay for chromosome aberrations sometimes occur with test chemicals that apparently do not react with DNA, being negative in tests for mutation in bacteria, for DNA strand breaks, and for covalent binding to DNA. These chromosome aberrations typically occur over a narrow concentration range at toxic doses, and with mitotic(More)
Vorinostat (SAHA, Zolinza), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is assessed in nonclinical studies to support its approval for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Vorinostat is weakly mutagenic in the Ames assay; is clastogenic in rodent (ie, CHO) cells but not in normal human lymphocytes; and is weakly positive in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. No effects are(More)
Choice of harvest time is one of the most important variables in the assessment of whether a compound is clastogenic and in establishing a dose relation. We examined the effects of sampling time on aberration yield for 7 diverse chemicals in CHO-WBL cells by harvesting at intervals from 9 to 30 h after treatment for 3 h with or without S9 metabolic(More)
Marine fish species with planktonic larval stages experience high and variable pre-adult mortality, and in accordance with general life-history theory have evolved iteroparity to reduce the uncertainty in reproductive success of individuals. In this paper we use a Monte Carlo model to explore the influence of spawning style and adult survival of clupeoids(More)
Certain chemicals that are either weak or non-carcinogens had been previously shown to induce DNA single-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes, but only at cytotoxic doses. In contrast, stronger carcinogens induced DNA single-strand breaks at non-toxic doses. This report shows that the strong carcinogens and mutagens cadmium sulfate, sodium dichromate, dimethyl(More)
O6-Methylguanine (O6MeG) is important in induction of chromosome aberrations (abs), with the unusual property that new abs are produced in the second cycle after treatment; cells lacking repair by O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) have more abs at the second division (M2) than at the first (M1). These second-cycle abs are likely caused by attempted(More)
Video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) is a new approach to parathyroid exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism (PH). We examined the VAP learning curve and hypothesized that compared with conventional minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIS), VAP has similar complication rates and the added benefit of a shorter hospital length of stay. Using a(More)