Michael J. A. Williams

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The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one(More)
Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were(More)
It is known that cerebral blood flow declines with age in sedentary adults, although previous studies have involved small sample sizes, making the exact estimate of decline imprecise and the effects of possible moderator variables unknown. Animal studies indicate that aerobic exercise can elevate cerebral blood flow; however, this possibility has not been(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the reliability of the Ashworth Scale and the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) in poststroke patients with upper-limb spasticity and functional disability. DESIGN Single-center trial. SETTING University medical center. PARTICIPANTS Nine patients > or = 6 months poststroke with upper-limb spasticity and impairment in the areas of(More)
RATIONALE Accumulation of eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa of individuals with asthma is considered to be a central event in the pathogenesis of asthma. In animal models, airway eosinophil recruitment and airway hyperresponsiveness in response to allergen challenge are reduced by specific targeting of interleukin-5. A previous small dose-finding study(More)
Orthostatic tolerance is reduced with increasing age and following prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress following prolonged exercise. Measurements were obtained before, and within 45 min after, 4 h of continuous running at 70-80% of maximal heart(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of (i) meals rich in saturated fat, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid and (ii) meals rich in starch and fiber on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in obese and lean women. In a crossover study, 15 abdominally obese women (age, 54 +/- 9 years; BMI, 37.3 +/- 5.5 kg/m2) and 14 lean women (age,(More)
The physiological challenge of standing upright is evidenced by temporary symptoms of light-headedness, dizziness, and nausea. It is not known, however, if initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH) and related symptoms associated with standing are related to the occurrence of syncope. Since IOH reflects immediate and temporary adjustments compared with the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether microdebrider intracapsular tonsillotomy (MT) results in less postoperative pain compared with electrosurgical extracapsular tonsillectomy (ET). DESIGN Prospective, randomized, double-blind, matched pair, clinical trial. SETTING Specialty care hospital. Patients Twelve male (48%) and 13 female (52%) children aged 5 to 15(More)
Damage to the tricuspid valve apparatus has been described after endomyocardial biopsy and may be associated with hemodynamically significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR). This study was performed to determine the prevalence of TR and flail tricuspid leaflet in cardiac transplant recipients and to evaluate the use of a 45 cm sheath placed directly in the(More)