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CONTEXT The efficacy of counseling to prevent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has not been definitively shown. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 2 interactive HIV/STD counseling interventions with didactic prevention messages typical of current practice. DESIGN Multicenter randomized(More)
BACKGROUND For two decades, treatment guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have recommended empirical co-treatment for chlamydia when patients are treated for gonorrhea. Because the epidemiology of and diagnostic testing for STDs have changed over time, co-treatment may no longer be needed as a clinical or public health strategy. OBJECTIVE(More)
The seroincidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was determined among 1766 patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STD risk-reduction counseling (RRC). Arm 1 received enhanced RRC (4 sessions); arm 2, brief RRC (2 sessions); and arm(More)
BACKGROUND Male circumcision status has been shown to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition in some, but not all, studies. Most studies have been cross sectional. OBJECTIVES We examined the association between circumcision status and the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis. METHODS We analysed(More)
Project RESPECT was a multisite randomized trial comparing three clinic-based interventions' ability to increase condom use and prevent infection with HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Because Project RESPECT had guiding concepts that determined the content of the sessions, the authors investigated how the intervention operated using these theoretical(More)
CONTEXT Misconceptions about STD-protective behaviors have not been studied before and after STD counseling. Further, to the best of our knowledge, the relationship of these misconceptions to condom use and STD incidence has not previously been described in published reports. OBJECTIVES The main purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of(More)
The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was studied among 4128 patients from sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus and STD counseling efficacy. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 40.8% and was higher in women than in men (52.0% vs. 32.4%; P<.0001) and(More)
To study the structure of beliefs about condom use outcomes, the authors derived and tested 4 psychosocial hypothetical models: (a) a 2-factor model of the personal and social outcomes of condom use; (b) a 2-factor model of the pros and cons of the behavior; (c) a 3-factor model (i.e., physical, self-evaluative, and social) of outcome expectancies; and (d)(More)
According to the Stages of Change (SOC) model, behavioural change involves a process of movement from precontemplation (no intention to change), to contemplation (some intention to change, but no behaviour), to preparation (intention to change and early inconsistent behavioural attempts to change), to action (consistent behavioural performance for less than(More)
BACKGROUND Errors in the classification of male circumcision status could bias studies linking infection to lack of circumcision. GOAL To determine the frequency and factors associated with the reproducibility of reporting circumcision status. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis of data using logistic regression modeling from a multicenter randomized(More)