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Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22(More)
To estimate the relative contributions of woody and herbaceous vegetation to savanna productivity, we measured the 13C/12C isotopic ratios of leaves from trees, shrubs, grasses and the surface soil carbon pool for 22 savannas in Australia, Brazil and Ghana covering the full savanna spectrum ranging from almost pure grassland to closed woodlands on all three(More)
The role of African savannahs in the evolution of early hominins has been debated for nearly a century. Resolution of this issue has been hindered by difficulty in quantifying the fraction of woody cover in the fossil record. Here we show that the fraction of woody cover in tropical ecosystems can be quantified using stable carbon isotopes in soils.(More)
Excavations at Liang Bua, a large limestone cave on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, have yielded evidence for a population of tiny hominins, sufficiently distinct anatomically to be assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The finds comprise the cranial and some post-cranial remains of one individual, as well as a premolar from another(More)
Photosynthetic leaf traits were determined for savanna and forest ecosystems in West Africa, spanning a large range in precipitation. Standardized major axis fits revealed important differences between our data and reported global relationships. Especially for sites in the drier areas, plants showed higher photosynthetic rates for a given N or P when(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes severe lower respiratory diseases in infancy, early childhood and the elderly. RSV infections respond poorly to current therapies. Therefore, we initiated a search for novel drug targets by investigating the characteristics and identity of RSV adhesion receptors on mammalian cells. Soluble human lectins,(More)
Widespread burning of mixed tree–grass ecosystems represents the major natural locus of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) production. PyC is a significant, pervasive and yet poorly understood " slow-cycling " form of carbon present in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils and sediments. We conducted 16 experimental burns on a rainfall transect through northern Australian(More)
We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and(More)
Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the Ab-Slide with crunch abdominal exercises for electromyographic activity for selected muscles. Forty-five subjects who regularly performed abdominal exercises participated. Subjects completed 5 trials for each exercise, with repetition rate controlled by the tester. Electromyographic activity for the external(More)