Michael Herbert Walter

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This review focuses on plant carotenoids, but it also includes progress made on microbial and animal carotenoid metabolism to better understand the functions and the evolution of these structurally diverse compounds with a common backbone. Plants have evolved isogenes for specific key steps of carotenoid biosynthesis with differential expression profiles,(More)
Plants and certain bacteria use a non-mevalonate alternative route for the biosynthesis of many isoprenoids, including carotenoids. This route has been discovered only recently and has been designated the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway or methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. We report here that colonisation of roots from wheat, maize, rice and barley(More)
Isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor of isoprenoids, is synthesized by two separate routes, one in the cytosol and the other in plastids. The initial step of the plastidial pathway is catalysed by 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), which was previously thought to be encoded by a single-copy gene. We have identified two distinct(More)
Apocarotenoids are tailored from carotenoids by oxidative enzymes [carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs)], cleaving specific double bonds of the polyene chain. The cleavage products can act as hormones, signaling compounds, chromophores and scent/aroma constituents. Recent advances were the identification of strigolactones as apocarotenoids and the(More)
We have searched for induced transcripts in a cDNA library derived from bean cell suspension cultures treated with an elicitor fromColletotrichum lindemuthianum. Six independently isolated cDNAs corresponding to rapidly induced small mRNAs have been classified by their DNA sequence and slightly different induction behaviour into two groups. 5′- and(More)
Colonisation of maize roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi leads to the accumulation of apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives). Other root apocarotenoids (strigolactones) are involved in signalling during early steps of the AM symbiosis but also in stimulation of germination of parasitic plant seeds. Both apocarotenoid classes are(More)
Mycorrhizas are the most important mutualistic symbioses on earth. The most prevalent type are the arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) that develop between roots of most terrestrial plants and fungal species of the Zygomycota. The AM fungi are able to grow into the root cortex forming intercellular hyphae from which highly branched structures, arbuscules,(More)
Tailoring carotenoids by plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) generates various bioactive apocarotenoids. Recombinant CCD1 has been shown to catalyze symmetrical cleavage of C(40) carotenoid substrates at 9,10 and 9',10' positions. The actual substrate(s) of the enzyme in planta, however, is still unknown. In this study, we have carried out RNA(More)
The intracellular pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are encoded by a highly polymorphic family of at least 20 genes. One member, the Ypr10*c gene, has been isolated and characterised. The deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded protein, PR-10, exhibits similarities to tree-pollen allergens, to food allergens from(More)
Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) catalyzes the final step in a branch of phenylpropanoid synthesis specific for production of lignin monomers. We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone encoding CAD, as a molecular marker specific for lignification, by immunoscreening a lambda gt11 library containing cDNAs complementary to mRNA from(More)