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Venom-derived peptide toxins can modify the gating characteristics of excitatory channels in neurons. How they bind and interfere with the flow of ions without directly blocking the ion permeation pathway remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the trimeric chicken Acid-sensing ion channel 1 in complex with the highly selective gating(More)
In higher organisms the formation of the steroid scaffold is catalysed exclusively by the membrane-bound oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC; lanosterol synthase). In a highly selective cyclization reaction OSC forms lanosterol with seven chiral centres starting from the linear substrate 2,3-oxidosqualene. Valuable data on the mechanism of the complex cyclization(More)
Fatty-acid synthesis in bacteria is of great interest as a target for the discovery of antibacterial compounds. The addition of a new acetyl moiety to the growing fatty-acid chain, an essential step in this process, is catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS). It is inhibited by natural antibiotics such as cerulenin and thiolactomycin; however, these(More)
Novel drug release microimplants (0.8 x 1.14 mm; custom-made by Leiras, now Schering OY, Finland) of slow- and fast-release types containing either 0.9 mg beclomethasone or no drug at all were placed unilaterally onto the round-window membrane (RWM) of 45 guinea pigs for a maximum duration of 28 days. The following parameters were tested on days 1, 14 and(More)
The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab is a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal treatment of malignant ascites. In a Phase II/III trial in cancer patients (n = 258) with malignant ascites, catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit vs. paracentesis and had an acceptable safety profile. Human antimouse antibodies (HAMAs), which could be(More)
Seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) contain besides large amounts of canavalin and concanavalin A, a protein with a molecular mass of 33,800 which has been named concanavalin B. Although concanavalin B shares about 40% sequence identity with plant chitinases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 18, no chitinase activity could be detected for this(More)
BACKGROUND Baseline carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques are considered predictors of cardiovascular events, but whether they maintain predictive value in treated hypertensive patients and whether time-related (or treatment-induced) IMT changes are additional predictors are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Analyses were performed of the data from(More)
The activation of the G-protein transducin (Gt) by rhodopsin (Rho) has been intensively studied for several decades. It is the best understood example of GPCR activation mechanism and serves as a template for other GPCRs. The structure of the Rho/G protein complex, which is transiently formed during the signaling reaction, is of particular interest. It can(More)
The three-dimensional structure of narbonin, a seed protein from Vicia narbonensis L, has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. Phase information was obtained by multiple isomorphous replacement and optimized anomalous dispersion. The narbonin structure was initially traced with only 17% amino-acid sequence information and preliminarily refined to a(More)
The aspartic protease BACE2 is responsible for the shedding of the transmembrane protein Tmem27 from the surface of pancreatic β-cells, which leads to inactivation of the β-cell proliferating activity of Tmem27. This role of BACE2 in the control of β-cell maintenance suggests BACE2 as a drug target for diabetes. Inhibition of BACE2 has recently been shown(More)