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A large body of evidence supports the hypothesis that mesolimbic dopamine (DA) mediates, in animal models, the reinforcing effects of central nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. The role DA plays in mediating amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans remains to be established. Both amphetamine and cocaine increase(More)
The nonmedical use of 'designer' cathinone analogs, such as 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), is increasing worldwide, yet little information is available regarding the mechanism of action for these drugs. Here, we employed in vitro and in vivo methods to compare neurobiological effects of mephedrone and(More)
BACKGROUND Serotonergic medications with various mechanisms of action are used to treat psychiatric disorders and are being investigated as treatments for drug dependence. The occurrence of fenfluramine-associated valvular heart disease (VHD) has raised concerns that other serotonergic medications might also increase the risk of developing VHD. We(More)
There has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of synthetic cathinones known as "bath salts," including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), an analog linked to many adverse events. MDPV differs from other synthetic cathinones because it contains a pyrrolidine ring which gives the drug potent actions as an uptake blocker at dopamine and norepinephrine(More)
The abuse of psychoactive 'bath salts' containing cathinones such as 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a growing public health concern, yet little is known about their pharmacology. Here, we evaluated the effects of MDPV and related drugs using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays were performed in rat brain(More)
OBJECTIVE Provide explicit expert-based consensus recommendations for the management of adults with primary and secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces in an emergency department and inpatient hospital setting. The use of opinion was made explicit by employing a structured questionnaire, appropriateness scores, and consensus scores with a Delphi technique. The(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been interpreted as neurotoxicity. Whether such 5-HT deficits reflect neuronal damage is a matter of ongoing debate. The present paper reviews four(More)
Fourteen patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma) and interstitial lung disease were treated with oral cyclophosphamide (1-2 mg/kg/day) and low dose prednisone (< 10 mg/day). There was a significant improvement in FVC after 6 months compared to entry values (2.21 +/- 0.19 l vs. 2.03 +/- 0.15 l, p < 0.02). Improvement was maintained at 12 months(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or 'Ecstasy') is an illicit drug that stimulates the release of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) from neurons. Recent evidence reveals that drug users are ingesting piperazine analogs, like 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP, or 'A2') and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP, or 'Molly'), to mimic psychoactive effects(More)
Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called "bath salts" products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and(More)