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The induction of stress proteins is an important component of the adaptional network of a non-growing cell of Bacillus subtilis. A diverse range of stresses such as heat shock, salt stress, ethanol, starvation for oxygen or nutrients etc. induce the same set of proteins, called general stress proteins. Although the adaptive functions of these proteins are(More)
Phytoplankton blooms characterize temperate ocean margin zones in spring. We investigated the bacterioplankton response to a diatom bloom in the North Sea and observed a dynamic succession of populations at genus-level resolution. Taxonomically distinct expressions of carbohydrate-active enzymes (transporters; in particular, TonB-dependent transporters) and(More)
Bacteria adapt to environmental stimuli by adjusting their transcriptomes in a complex manner, the full potential of which has yet to be established for any individual bacterial species. Here, we report the transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis exposed to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions that the organism might encounter in nature. We(More)
Gene arrays containing all currently known open reading frames of Bacillus subtilis were used to examine the general stress response of Bacillus. By proteomics, transcriptional analysis, transposon mutagenesis, and consensus promoter-based screening, 75 genes had previously been described as sigma(B)-dependent general stress genes. The present gene(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
The phosphate starvation response in Bacillus subtilis was analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell extracts and supernatants from phosphate-starved cells. Most of the phosphate starvation-induced proteins are under the control of sigma(B), the activity of which is increased by energy depletion. In order to define the(More)
The availability of complete genome sequences has allowed the prediction of all exported proteins of the corresponding organisms with dedicated algorithms. Even though numerous studies report on genome-based predictions of signal peptides and cell retention signals, they lack a proteomic verification. For example, 180 secretory and 114 lipoprotein signal(More)
Bacillus subtilis cells respond almost immediately to different stress conditions by increasing the production of general stress proteins (GSPs). The genes encoding the majority of the GSPs that are induced by heat, ethanol, salt stress or by starvation for glucose, oxygen or phosphate belong to the sigmaB-dependent general stress regulon. Despite a good(More)
The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to oxidative stress by the activation of different cellular defence mechanisms. These are composed of scavenging enzymes as well as protection and repair systems organized in highly sophisticated networks. In this study, the peroxide and the superoxide stress stimulons of B. subtilis were(More)