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Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated(More)
Acrylamide (AA), classified as class 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is formed during heating of food from reducing carbohydrates and asparagine by Maillard reaction chemistry. After dietary uptake, AA is in part metabolically converted into the proximate genotoxic phase I metabolite(More)
In genetic toxicology, risk assessment has traditionally adopted linear dose-responses for any compound that causes genotoxic effects. Increasing evidence of non-linear dose-responses, however, suggests potential cellular tolerance to low levels of many genotoxicants with diverse modes of action. Such putative non-linear dose-responses need to be(More)
In the present study, we investigated the effect of anthocyanidins on human topoisomerases I and II and its relevance for DNA integrity within human cells. Anthocyanidins bearing vicinal hydroxy groups at the B-ring (delphinidin, DEL; cyanidin, CY) were found to potently inhibit the catalytic activity of human topoisomerases I and II, without discriminating(More)
We investigated the effect of a series of Maillard reaction products formed from carbohydrates under household heating conditions on the growth of human tumor cells in vitro. 4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone (1) was found to potently enhance the proliferation of human tumor cells. In contrast, the Maillard-type chromophores(More)
Very recently, 3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-(2-furyl)methylidene]methyl-3-cyclopentene-1,2-dione (1) has been successfully identified as an intensively coloured Maillard product formed from glucose and L-proline upon thermal food processing. Using a biomimetic synthetic strategy, reference material of compound 1 was prepared and purified, and then used to study its(More)
Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a repair enzyme that removes adducts, e.g. of topoisomerase I from the 3'-phosphate of DNA breaks. When expressed in human cells as biofluorescent chimera, TDP1 appeared more mobile than topoisomerase I, less accumulated in nucleoli, and not chromosome-bound at early mitosis. Upon exposure to camptothecin both(More)
3',5'-Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important second messengers in mammalian cells, mediating a multitude of diverse cellular signalling responses. Its homeostasis is primarily regulated by adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDE), the activities of which are partially dependent on the downstream events of adenosine receptor signalling. The(More)
The plant alkaloid lycobetaine has potent topoisomerase-targeting properties and shows anticancer activity. Based on these findings, several lycobetaine analogs were synthesized mainly differing in their substituents at 2, 8 and 9 position and their biological activities were evaluated. The topoisomerase-targeting properties and cytotoxicity of these(More)
The working group "Food technology and safety" of the DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) advises on new technologies concerning food processing. Treatment with plasma is a newly developed process, which is currently used only on a pilot scale in Europe. The novel plasma treatment technology is experimentally applied to consumer goods. There are(More)