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The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules.(More)
This paper reviews evidence from April, 1998 through April 2002 for the dopaminergic treatment of the restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). There has been increased study of dopaminergic agents for the treatment of these conditions since publication of a review paper and practice parameters that covered all types of(More)
We describe demographic, clinical, laboratory and aetiological findings in 93 consecutive patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), which consists of excessive motor activity during dreaming in association with loss of skeletal muscle atonia of REM sleep. The patients were seen at the Mayo Sleep Disorders Center between January(More)
REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep with prominent motor activity accompanying dreaming. The terminology relating to RBD, and mechanisms underlying REM sleep without atonia and RBD based on data in cat and rat are presented. Neuroimaging data from the few published(More)
The management of sleep disturbances in patients with dementia is a complicated and enormously important clinical and societal problem. In this review, we present one approach to the diagnosis and management of such sleep disturbances. Most disturbances can be categorized into four primary symptoms: insomnia, hypersomnia, excessive nocturnal motor activity,(More)
BACKGROUND REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been reported with various neurodegenerative disorders, most frequently in disorders with Lewy body pathology. RBD often precedes the onset of PD, and a recent prospective study showed that 38% of patients with RBD eventually developed PD. METHODS We identified 37 patients with degenerative dementia and a(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be the initial manifestation of synucleinopathies (Parkinson disease [PD], multiple system atrophy [MSA], or dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB]). METHODS We used the Mayo medical records linkage system to identify cases presenting from 2002 to 2006 meeting the criteria of idiopathic RBD at onset,(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. Patients appear to "act out their dreams," in which the exhibited behaviors mirror the content of the dreams. Management of RBD involves counseling about safety measures in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia reflecting changes in the brain, but which specific neuronal networks are involved in human RBD pathogenesis has not yet been determined. To date, only one case of idiopathic RBD has undergone autopsy, in which "incidental Lewy body disease" was found. Due to the(More)
Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported problem in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined the relationship between nighttime sleep continuity and the propensity to fall asleep during the day in clinically probable DLB compared to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. A full-night polysomnography was carried out in 61 participants with DLB and(More)