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To assess the total medical costs and productivity losses associated with the 1993 waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, including the average cost per person with mild, moderate, and severe illness, we conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness analysis using data from 11 hospitals in the greater Milwaukee area and epidemiologic(More)
BACKGROUND This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. METHODS We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS From(More)
In 2001, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) implemented a new electronic surveillance system (SurvNet) for infectious disease outbreaks in Germany. SurvNet has captured 30,578 outbreak reports in 2001-2005. The size of the outbreaks ranged from 2 to 527 cases. For outbreaks reported in 2002-2005, the median duration from notification of the first case to the(More)
BACKGROUND Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. METHODS Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO) with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. (More)
INTRODUCTION To establish strategic priorities for the German national public health institute (RKI) and guide the institute's mid-term strategic decisions, we prioritized infectious pathogens in accordance with their importance for national surveillance and epidemiological research. METHODS We used the Delphi process with internal (RKI) and external(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections constitute major public health problems in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we examined the functional significance of such polyparasite infections in anemia and undernutrition in Rwandan individuals. METHODS Three polyparasite infection profiles were(More)
In the summer of 1994, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred among visitors to a state park in New Jersey. We enrolled 185 persons in a cohort study, 38 (20.5%) of whom had laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis or gastrointestinal illness that met our clinical case definition. Having any exposure to lake water (e.g., swimming) was strongly associated(More)
BACKGROUND The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the(More)
In Japan, Tsutsugamushi disease, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is re-emerging with newly recognized strains and is now endemic in all prefectures except Hokkaido and Okinawa. We analyzed recent surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease and to evaluate the newly implemented national surveillance system according to(More)
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