Michael H. Kottow

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Medical ethics could be better understood if some basic theoretical aspects of practices in health care are analysed. By discussing the underlying ethical principles that govern medical practice, the student should also become familiar with the notion that medical ethics is much more than the external application of socially accepted moral standards.(More)
Human beings are essentially vulnerable in the view that their existence qua humans is not given but constructed. This vulnerability received basic protection from the State, expressed in the form of the universal rights all citizens are meant to enjoy. In addition, many individuals fall prey to destitution and deprivation, requiring social action aimed at(More)
This article takes issue with those who defend a brand of clinical research ethics that tends to substitute the ethics of clinical care of patients being recruited as trial subjects. The distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic studies is being disregarded by arguing that research is concerned with the pursuit of knowledge rather than with the(More)
Clinical and research practices designed by developed countries are often implemented in host nations of the Third World. In recent years, a number of papers have presented a diversity of arguments to justify these practices which include the defence of research with placebos even though best proven treatments exist; the distribution of drugs unapproved in(More)
Clinicians' work depends on sincere and complete disclosures from their patients; they honour this candidness by confidentially safeguarding the information received. Breaching confidentiality causes harms that are not commensurable with the possible benefits gained. Limitations or exceptions put on confidentiality would destroy it, for the confider would(More)
28 cysts and tumours involving the iris are studied by means of fluorescein angiography of the anterior segment. Iris cysts usually showed abnormally dilated and tortuous feeding vessels, but only exceptionally did they leak fluorescein. Inflammatory masses presented massive dye leakage from both tumour-involved and distant iris vessels. Benign stromal(More)
A consensual reaction was consistently obtained in rabbits subjected to unilateral paracentesis. On fluorescein angiography of the anterior segment, we observed that this consensual reaction consisted of a slight to moderate dye extravasation from the ciliary processes into the aqueous. Aspirin usually, but not always, inhibited this reaction. Retrobulbar(More)
Six consecutive patients with early Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) were examined with anterior segment 10% fluorescein sodium angiography. Anterior segment perfusion defects and iris vasculature leakage were seen in all patients. Chronic anterior segment ischemia may be an integral feature of FHC, which predisposes these eyes to rubeosis and, in some(More)
Autonomy has been hailed as the foremost principle of bioethics, and yet patients' decisions and research subjects' voluntary participation are being subjected to frequent restrictions. It has been argued that patient care is best served by a limited form of paternalism because the doctor is better qualified to take critical decisions than the patient, who(More)