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Transcription factors control cell-specific gene expression programs through interactions with diverse coactivators and the transcription apparatus. Gene activation may involve DNA loop formation between enhancer-bound transcription factors and the transcription apparatus at the core promoter, but this process is not well understood. Here we report that(More)
Pc2 is a polycomb protein, which has SUMO E3 activity for the corepressors CtBP and CtBP2. Here we demonstrate that, in vivo, Pc2 adapter function contributes to enhancement of CtBP sumoylation. Mutation of the CtBP binding site on Pc2 abolishes E3 activity toward CtBP. However, a carboxyl-terminal fragment of Pc2 that recruits both Ubc9 and CtBP lacks E3(More)
Control of gene expression during development requires the concerted action of sequence-specific transcriptional regulators and epigenetic modifiers, which are spatially coordinated within the nucleus through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that transcriptional repression by the Msx1 homeoprotein in myoblast cells requires the(More)
BACKGROUND Modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) is an essential process in mammalian cells. SUMO is covalently attached to lysines in target proteins via an enzymatic cascade which consists of E1 and E2, SUMO activating and conjugating enzymes. There is also a variable requirement for non-enzymatic E3 adapter like proteins,(More)
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