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We previously reported that macrophage exposure to attenuated strains of pathogenic mycobacteria at multiplicities of infection (MOI) < or = 10 triggers TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis which reduces the viability of intracellular bacilli. Virulent strains were found to suppress macrophage apoptosis, and it was proposed that apoptosis is an innate defense(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of intravenous epoprostenol in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS Sixteen patients with SSc-associated PH and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV symptomatology underwent right heart catheterization for determination of baseline(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons are predisposed to pulmonary infections, even after receiving effective highly active antiretroviral therapy. The reasons for this are unclear but may involve changes in innate immune function. HIV type 1 infection of macrophages impairs effector functions, including cytokine production. We observed(More)
BACKGROUND This study determined actual utilization rates and outcomes of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) at selected hospitals that had participated in a prior survey on NIV use. METHODS This observational cohort study, based at eight acute care hospitals in Massachusetts, focused on all adult patients requiring ventilatory support for(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of chronic disease and do-not-intubate status increases with age. Thus, we aimed to determine characteristics and outcomes associated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in different age groups. METHODS A database comprising prospective data collected on site on all adult patients with ARF(More)
Zinc finger protein 36, C3H type-like 1 (ZFP36L1) is one of several Zinc Finger Protein 36 (Zfp36) family members, which bind AU rich elements within 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) to negatively regulate the post-transcriptional expression of targeted mRNAs. The prototypical member of the family, Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36), has been well-studied in the(More)
Impaired adaptive immunity is the hallmark of AIDS, but the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on innate immunity are less clear. Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) is a common AIDS-related fungal pathogen acquired by inhalation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) comprise the initial host defense in cryptococcosis and they may arrest(More)
PURPOSE Few studies have examined locations of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) application for acute respiratory failure (ARF). We aimed to track actual locations of NIV delivery and related outcomes. METHODS Observational cohort study based at 8 acute care hospitals in Massachusetts on adult patients admitted for ARF requiring ventilatory support during(More)
Alveolar macrophages orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity and are essential for early immune surveillance and clearance of microorganisms in the airways. Inflammatory signaling must be sufficiently robust to promote host defense but limited enough to prevent excessive tissue injury. Macrophages in the lungs utilize multiple transcriptional and(More)
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