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Between the 1960s and 1980s, most life scientists focused their attention on studies of nucleic acids and the translation of the coded information. Protein degradation was a neglected area, considered to be a nonspecific, dead-end process. Although it was known that proteins do turn over, the large extent and high specificity of the process, whereby(More)
The proteasome consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and a 19S regulatory particle (RP), which selects ubiquitinated substrates for translocation into the CP. An eight-subunit subcomplex of the RP, the lid, can be dissociated from proteasomes prepared from a deletion mutant for Rpn10, an RP subunit. A second subcomplex, the base, contains all six(More)
The proteasome is a multisubunit protease responsible for degrading proteins conjugated to ubiquitin. The 670-kDa core particle of the proteasome contains the proteolytic active sites, which face an interior chamber within the particle and are thus protected from the cytoplasm. The entry of substrates into this chamber is thought to be governed by the(More)
A family of ATPases resides within the regulatory particle of the proteasome. These proteins (Rpt1-Rpt6) have been proposed to mediate substrate unfolding, which may be required for translocation of substrates through the channel that leads from the regulatory particle into the proteolytic core particle. To analyze the role of ATP hydrolysis in protein(More)
The 26 S proteasome is a multisubunit proteolytic complex responsible for degrading eukaryotic proteins targeted by ubiquitin modification. Substrate recognition by the complex is presumed to be mediated by one or more common receptor(s) with affinity for multiubiquitin chains, especially those internally linked through lysine 48. We have identified(More)
The 26S proteasome plays a major role in eukaryotic protein breakdown, especially for ubiquitin-tagged proteins. Substrate specificity is conferred by the regulatory particle (RP), which can dissociate into stable lid and base subcomplexes. To help define the molecular organization of the RP, we tested all possible paired interactions among subunits from(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) eliminates aberrant proteins from the ER by dislocating them to the cytoplasm where they are tagged by ubiquitin and degraded by the proteasome. Six distinct AAA-ATPases (Rpt1-6) at the base of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome recognize, unfold, and translocate substrates into the 20S(More)
During prolonged starvation, yeast cells enter a stationary phase (SP) during which the synthesis of many proteins is dramatically decreased. We show that a parallel decrease in proteasome-dependent proteolysis also occurs. The reduction in proteolysis is correlated with disassembly of 26S proteasome holoenzymes into their 20S core particle (CP) and 19S(More)
Protein substrates of the proteasome must apparently be unfolded and translocated through a narrow channel to gain access to the proteolytic active sites of the enzyme. Protein folding in vivo is mediated by molecular chaperones. Here, to test for chaperone activity of the proteasome, we assay the reactivation of denatured citrate synthase. Both human and(More)
The 26S proteasome is an essential proteolytic complex that is responsible for degrading proteins conjugated with ubiquitin. It has been proposed that the recognition of substrates by the 26S proteasome is mediated by a multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein that has previously been characterized in both plants and animals. In this study, we identified a(More)