Michael H. Carr

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a r t i c l e i n f o Mars accumulated and differentiated into crust, mantle and core within a few tens of millions of years of Solar System formation. Formation of Hellas, which has been adopted as the base of the Noachian period, is estimated to have occurred around 4.1 to 3.8 Gyr ago, depending on whether or not the planet experienced a late cataclysm.(More)
High-resolution Viking orbiter images show evidence for quasi-viscous relaxation of topography. The relaxation is believed to be due to creep deformation of ice in near-surface materials. The global distribution of the inferred ground ice shows a pronounced latitudinal dependence. The equatorial regions of Mars appear to be ice-poor, while the heavily(More)
Galileo images of Gaspra reveal it to be an irregularly shaped object (19 by 12 by 11 kilometers) that appears to have been created by a catastrophic collisional disruption of a precursor parent body. The cratering age of the surface is about 200 million years. Subtle albedo and color variations appear to correlate with morphological features: Brighter(More)
Images from the Mars Express HRSC (High-Resolution Stereo Camera) of debris aprons at the base of massifs in eastern Hellas reveal numerous concentrically ridged lobate and pitted features and related evidence of extremely ice-rich glacier-like viscous flow and sublimation. Together with new evidence for recent ice-rich rock glaciers at the base of the(More)
Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual(More)
[1] If the large Late Hesperian outflow channels were eroded by extensive floods, as appears likely, then large bodies of water must have once occupied the northern plains during that period. Previous estimates of the sizes of bodies of water in the northern lowlands range up to 3 10 km. Several contacts have been previously mapped around the edges of the(More)
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and its Athena science payload have been used to investigate a landing site in Gusev crater. Gusev is hypothesized to be the site of a former lake, but no clear evidence for lacustrine sedimentation has been found to date. Instead, the dominant lithology is basalt, and the dominant geologic processes are impact events and(More)
The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and(More)
recently than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Global-scale patterns of tectonic Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface features suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous with a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact rotation of Europa around Jupiter. Some regions of(More)