Michael Gustin

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A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK(More)
Yeast genes were isolated that are required for restoring the osmotic gradient across the cell membrane in response to increased external osmolarity. Two of these genes, HOG1 and PBS2, encode members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and MAP kinase kinase gene families, respectively. MAP kinases are activated by extracellular ligands such(More)
The HOG signal pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined by the PBS2 and HOG1 genes encoding members of the MAP kinase kinase and of the MAP kinase family, respectively. Mutations in this pathway (deletions of PBS2 or HOG1, or point mutations in HOG1) almost completely abolish the induction of transcription by osmotic stress that is mediated(More)
The yeast Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that threatens patients with compromised immune systems. Immune cell defenses against C. albicans are complex but typically involve the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen radicals such as nitric oxide (NO) that damage the yeast or inhibit its growth. Whether Candida defends itself(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, actin filaments function to direct cell growth to the emerging bud. Yeast has a single essential actin gene, ACT1. Diploid cells containing a single copy of ACT1 are osmosensitive (Osms), i.e., they fail to grow in high osmolarity media (D. Shortle, unpublished observations cited by Novick, P., and D. Botstein. 1985.(More)
The membrane potential of Paramecium controls the frequency and direction of the ciliary beat, thus determining the cell's swimming behavior. Stimuli that hyperpolarize the membrane potential increase the ciliary beat frequency and therefore increase forward swimming speed. We have observed that 1) drugs that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP increased(More)
The protein kinase Hog1 (high osmolarity glycerol 1) was discovered 20 years ago, being revealed as a central signaling mediator during osmoregulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Homologs of Hog1 exist in all evaluated eukaryotic organisms, and this kinase plays a central role in cellular responses to external stresses and stimuli. Here,(More)
Yeast cells respond to hypertonic shock by activation of a (MAP) mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade called the (HOG) high osmolarity glycerol response pathway. How yeast respond to hypotonic shock is unknown. Results of this investigation show that a second MAP kinase cascade in yeast called the protein kinase C1 (PKC1) pathway is activated by(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are conserved signal transduction pathways that are required for eukaryotic cells to respond to a variety of stimuli. Multiple MAP kinase pathways can function within a single cell type; therefore, mechanisms that insulate one MAP kinase pathway from adventitious activations by parallel pathways may exist. We(More)
This work has identified regulatory elements in the major fungal pathogen Candida albicans that enable response to nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by macrophages of the host immune system and commensal bacteria, and the ability to resist its toxicity is one adaptation that promotes survival of C. albicans inside the human body. Exposing(More)