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Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new immunomodulatory drug shown to be effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); however, its molecular target pathways are not well recognized. In this study we characterized in-vitro the molecular effects of LAQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects and RRMS patients by(More)
The aim of this study is to understand intracellular regulatory mechanisms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are either common to many autoimmune diseases or specific to some of them. We incorporated large-scale data such as protein-protein interactions, gene expression and demographical information of hundreds of patients and healthy(More)
A qualitative study to investigate the development of style in performance with a highly constrained musical instrument is described. A new one-button instrument was designed , with which several musicians were each asked to practice and develop a solo performance. Observations of trends in attributes of these performances are detailed in relation to(More)
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been reported to reduce disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We assessed the effect of IVIg treatment in patients after the first neurological event suggestive of demyelinative disease and evaluated the occurrence of a second attack and dissemination in time demonstrated(More)
Pairs of musicians were placed apart in isolated rooms and asked to clap a rhythm together. Each person monitored the other's sound via headphones and microphone pickup was as close as possible. Time delay from source to listener was manipulated across trials. Trials were recorded and clap onset times were measured with an event detection algorithm. Longer(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disease with an unpredictable course and outcome. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are involved in the disease pathogenesis and induce active demyelination. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we identified a statistically significant transcriptional signature of 1,109 genes in PBMCs from 26 MS(More)
Molecular mechanisms that influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood gene expression profiles in nine healthy subjects up to nine years before the onset of multiple sclerosis in comparison with 11 age-, gender-, and origin-matched healthy subjects who remained multiple sclerosis-free, and 31 subjects(More)