Michael Gruss

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The present study provides evidence for the hypothesis that the extent and the direction of experience-induced synaptic changes in cortical areas correlates with time windows of neuronal as well as endocrine development. Repeated brief exposure to maternal separation prior to the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(More)
Exposing pups of the rodent species Octodon degus to periodic separation stress during the first three postnatal weeks leads to behavioral alterations, which include reduced attention towards an emotional stimulus and motoric hyperactivity. These behavioral changes, which are reminiscent of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are(More)
The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, originates from the loss of expression of the Fragile X mental retardation gene leading to the absence of the encoded Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). A broad pattern of morphological and behavioral abnormalities is well described for affected humans as well as Fmr1(More)
The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, is caused by silencing the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene leading to the absence of the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). We describe morphological and behavioral abnormalities for both affected humans and Fmr1 knockout mice, a putative animal model for the(More)
Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four(More)
The associative avian forebrain region medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) is involved in auditory filial imprinting and may be considered the avian analogue of the mammalian prefrontal cortex. In search of the neurochemical and physiological mechanisms which play a role in this learning process, we introduced microdialysis and a combined(More)
Imprinting in chicks is a form of juvenile learning that has been used to study the basic cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. The forebrain area mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) is a center for acoustic imprinting. Electrophysiological and pharmacological behavioral studies in the MNH have demonstrated that the glutamatergic(More)
In the forebrain of the domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus), an area termed the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale is strongly involved in emotional learning paradigms such as acoustic filial imprinting. Furthermore, the involvement of the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale in stressful situations, such as social separation,(More)
In the young chick, the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale is involved in learning paradigms, including imprinting and passive avoidance learning. Biochemical changes in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale following learning include an up-regulation of amino-acid transmitter levels and receptor activity. To follow the changes of(More)
A growing body of evidence highlights the impact of the early social environment for the adequate development of brain and behavior in animals and humans. Disturbances of this environment were found to be both maladaptive and adaptive to emotional and cognitive function. Using the semi-precocial, biparental rodent Octodon degus, we aimed to examine (i) the(More)