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We present a visually interactive approach to the design of 3-D computer-animated legged animal motion in the context of the PODA computer animation system. The design process entails the interactive specification of parameters which drive a computational model for animal movement. The animator incrementally modifies a framework for establishing desired(More)
Modeling techniques for animating legged figures are described which are used in the PODA animation system. PODA utilizes pseudoinverse control in order to solve the problems associated with manipulating kinematically redundant limbs. PODA builds on this capability to synthesize a kinematic model of legged locomotion which allows animators to control the(More)
Over the past decade, engineering principles have been used to explain why a mechanical load, intraocular pressure, can lead to the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This has led to the 'biomechanical theory' of glaucoma, which posits that the behavior of optic nerve head connective tissues (specifically within the peripapillary sclera and(More)
PURPOSE This study explores variation in the axial location of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) to determine if this reference plane varies with age and race. METHODS There were 168 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) optic nerve head volumes that were obtained from healthy subjects and manually delineated within 24 axial slices to develop(More)
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to establish sectorial and regional variability in the mechanical strain of peripapillary and mid-peripheral sclera in normal eyes from elderly human donors. METHODS Ten pairs of normal eyes from human donors aged 57 to 90 years old were mechanically inflation-tested within 48 hours post mortem. The intact posterior(More)
The lamina cribrosa (LC) is believed to be the site of injury to retinal ganglion cell axons in glaucoma. The ability to visualise this structure has the potential to help increase our understanding of the disease and be useful in the early detection of glaucoma. While for many years the research on the LC was essentially dependent on histology and(More)
PURPOSE To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. METHODS Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to(More)
PURPOSE This study examined the association between peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) with age and race in a group of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) subjects with normal eyes. METHODS Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of AD and ED were(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT) using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using(More)