Michael G. Wessells

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What are the impacts of war on the participants, and do they vary by gender? Are excombatants damaged pariahs who threaten social stability, as some fear? Existing theory and evidence are inconclusive and focus on males. New data and a tragic natural experiment in Uganda allow us to estimate the impacts of war on both females and males, and assess how war(More)
In the aftermath of international emergencies caused by natural disasters or armed conflicts, strong needs exist for psychosocial support on a large scale. Psychologists have developed and applied frameworks and tools that have helped to alleviate suffering and promote well-being in emergency settings. Unfortunately, psychological tools and approaches are(More)
Data from Uganda challenge conventional notions about the role of females during and after war. Women and girls recruited by the LRA play active roles and are not passive victims. We show how LRA treatment of females—especially strict rules against civilian rape and the use of forced marriage—serves an instrumental purpose, enhancing control of the forces(More)
Efforts to strengthen national child protection systems have frequently taken a top-down approach of imposing formal, government-managed services. Such expert-driven approaches are often characterized by low use of formal services and the misalignment of the nonformal and formal aspects of the child protection system. This article examines an alternative(More)
The field of mental health and psychosocial support for children in humanitarian emergencies has been evolving rapidly. A decade ago, researchers and practitioners frequently took a deficits approach that emphasized problems such as trauma, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in zones of armed conflict. Assessments focused on PTSD and(More)
1 Global Health Initiative, MacMillan Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, 2 HealthNet TPO, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 3 Sangath, Goa, India, 4 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, 5 Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6 Makerere University(More)
The autoshaping procedure confounds the effects of pairing a keylight and food with the effect of adventitious food reinforcement of responses that typically occur before the pecking response. In Experiment I, acquisition of the orientation to the key, the approach toward the key, and the peck at the key were systematically monitored. Orientations to the(More)
Children's Fund). The researchers wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, which funded the study, and ChildFund Afgahnistan for its generous, excellent support during the conduct of the research. The research team also thanks Christian Children's Fund for enabling the research. Most of all, the researchers thank the Afghan children, families, and(More)
Worldwide, children suffer a diverse and toxic array of effects of armed conflict, which increasingly are protracted and intermixed with problems such as terrorism. To support war-affected children, it is necessary to understand how children have been affected by war and to use appropriate conceptual analyses to inform the design of effective interventions.(More)